Influence of Lavandula angustifolia, Melissa officinalis and Vitex angus-castus on the organism of rats fed with excessive fat-containing diet

  • M. A. Lieshchova Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University
  • V. V. Brygadyrenko Oles Honchar Dnipro National University
Keywords: relative mass of the organs; increase in the body weight; high-fat diet; high-calorie diet; obesity; phytopreparations; motor activity; orienting activity; emotional status; biochemical blood parameters.

Abstract

Plant food additives are becoming more and more popular and broadly applied products, though the information on risks they poses to the organism is limited and contradictive. Obesity and overeating are some of the commonest health issues around the world, and people are increasingly consuming workability-enhancing preparations as a simple and fast method of weight control. The plant-based preparations are considered less harmful than the synthetic chemical ones. Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Melissa officinalis L. and Vitex angus-castus L. are broadly used as food additives and medicinal plants, despite the fact that their complex physiological assessment on model animals in the conditions of obesity has not yet been performed. We carried out a 30-day experiment on white male rats. All the animals were given high-fat diet, and the experimental animals, in addition to this diet, received 5% crumbled dry herbs of L. angustifolia, M. officinalis or V. angus-castus. Taking into account the overall amount of consumed food, the mean daily gain in body weight; at the end of the experiment, we determined the index of the weight of the internal organs, biochemical and morphological blood parameters. At the beginning and the end of the experiment, the rats were examined for motor and orienting activities, and emotional status. Rats on high-fat diet gained up to 112% body weight by the end of the experiment, while rats that had received V. angus-castus gained up to 119%, M. officinalis – 135%, L. angustifolia – 139%, compared with the initial body weight. Addition of medicinal plants to the diet led to increase in average daily weight increment, significantly and reliably after consuming lavender and lemon balm, less significantly and unreliably after eating Vitex. L. angustifolia and M. officinalis reduced the relative brain weight, and ingestion of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis caused notable decrease in the relative mass of the thymus (down to 58% and 47% of the relative weight of thymus in animals of the control group respectively). Also, these plants decreased the motor and orienting activities of the rats by the end of the experiment. As for the biochemical parameters of blood, the activity of alkaline phosphatase significantly increased to 406% following consumption of Melissa, to 350% after consuming lavender, and to 406% after Vitex, compared to the control group. Furthermore, all the groups were observed to have increased AST and ALT activities. Intake of lavender led to increases in cholesterol (to 125%) and LDL cholesterol (to 228%), whereas the groups that consumed lemon balm were observed to have decreases in urea nitrogen (to 79%), totalbilirubin (to 63%) and triglycerides (to 63%). Addition of Vitex led to increase in the index of aterogenecity against the background of notable fall in HDL cholesterol (to 52% of the control group). The medicinal plants also contributed to the normalization of the glucose level. Morphological analysis of blood revealed no significant changes, except heightened content of monocytes in blood, which is characteristic of all groups, including the control. Effects of L. angustifolia, M. officinalis and V. angus-castus on the organism of rats on excessive-fat diet require additional histological, histochemical and immunological surveys.

References

Akbarzadeh, M., Dehghani, M., Moshfeghy, Z., Emamghoreishi, M., Tavakoli, P., & Zare, N. (2015). Effect of Melissa officinalis capsule on the intensity of premenstrual syndrome symptoms in high school girl students. Nursing and Midwifery Studies, 4(2), e27001.

Anheyer, D., Lauche, R., Schumann, D., Dobos, G., & Cramer, H. (2017). Herbal medicines in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A systematic review. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 30, 14–23.

Aprotosoaie, A. C., Hancianu, M., Costache, I. I., & Miron, A. (2014). Linalool: A review on a key odorant molecule with valuable biological properties. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 29(4), 193–219.

Arika, W. M., Kibiti, C. M., Njagi, J. M., & Ngugi, M. P. (2019). Effects of DCM leaf extract of Gnidia glauca (Fresen) on locomotor activity, anxiety, and exploration-like behaviors in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Behavioural Neurology, 2019, 7359235.

Artz, M. B. (2007). Vitex agnus-castus. In: Tracy, T. S., & Kingston, R. L. (Eds.). Herbal products. Toxicology and clinical pharmacology. Forensic science and medicine. Humana Press. Pp. 245–258.

Arzi, A., Mojiri-Forushani, H., & Karampour, N. S. (2019). Evaluation of the anxiolytic effect of Vitex agnus-castus on female mice and possible role of estrogen receptors. Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products, 14(2), e63570.

Ayaz, M., Sadiq, A., Junaid, M., Ullah, F., Subhan, F., & Ahmed, J. (2017). Neuroprotective and anti-aging potentials of essential oils from aromatic and medicinal plants. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 9, 168.

Bailly, C. (2020). Targets and pathways involved in the antitumor activity of citral and its stereo-isomers. European Journal of Pharmacology, 871, 172945.

Bayat, M., Azami Tameh, A., Hossein Ghahremani, M., Akbari, M., Mehr, S. E., Khanavi, M., & Hassanzadeh, G. (2012). Neuroprotective properties of Melissa officinalis after hypoxic-ischemic injury both in vitro and in vivo. Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 20(1), 42.

Belova, M. M., Shipunova, V. O., Kotelnikova, P. A., Babenyshev, A. V., Rogozhin, E. A., Cherednichenko, M. Y., & Deyev, S. M. (2019). "Green" synthesis of cytotoxic silver nanoparticles based on secondary metabolites of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Acta Naturae, 11(2), 47–53.

Benny, A., & Thomas, J. (2019). Essential oils as treatment strategy for Alzheimers disease: Current and future perspectives. Planta Medica, 85(3), 239–248.

Bersani, F. S., Coviello, M., Imperatori, C., Francesconi, M., Hough, C. M., Valeriani, G., De Stefano, G., Posocco, F. B. M., Santacroce, R., Minichino, A., & Corazza, O. (2015). Adverse psychiatric effects associated with herbal weight-loss products. Biomed Research International, 2015, 120679.

Bilan, M. V., Lieshchova, M. A., Tishkina, N. M., & Brygadyrenko, V. V. (2019). Combined effect of glyphosate, saccharin and sodium benzoate on the gut microbiota of rats. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 10(2), 228–232.

Bojic, M., Males, Z., Antolic, A., Babic, I., & Tomicic, M. (2019). Antithrombotic activity of flavonoids and polyphenols rich plant species. Acta Pharmaceutica, 69(4), 483–495.

Boukhatem, M. N., Sudha, T., Darwish, N., Chader, H., Belkadi, A., Rajabi, M., Houche, A., Benkebailli, F., Oudjida, F., & Mousa, S. A. (2020). A new eucalyptol-rich lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.) essential oil: Emerging potential for therapy against inflammation and cancer. Molecules, 25(16), 3671.

Bounihi, A., Hajjaj, G., Alnamer, R., Cherrah, Y., & Zellou, A. (2013). In vivo potential anti-inflammatory activity of Melissa officinalis L. essential oil. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences, 2013, 101759.

Boyko, O. O., Kabar, A. M., & Brygadyrenko, V. V. (2020). Nematicidal activity of aqueous tinctures of medicinal plants against larvae of the nematodes Strongyloides papillosus and Haemonchus contortus. Biosystems Diversity, 28(1), 119–123.

Boyko, O., & Brygadyrenko, V. (2021). Nematicidal activity of essential oils of medicinal plants. Folia Oecologica, 48(1), 42–48.

Brown, D., & Murray, M. T. (2012). Vitex agnus castus (Chaste tree). In: Pizzorno, J., & Murray, M. (Eds.). Textbook of natural medicine. Churchill Livingstone. Pp. 1135–1139.

Brygadyrenko, V. V., Lieshchova, M. A., Bilan, M. V., Tishkina, N. M., & Horchanok, A. V. (2019). Effect of alcohol tincture of Aralia elata on the organism of rats and their gut microbiota against the background of excessive fat diet. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 10(4), 497–506.

Bukvicki, D., Gottardi, D., Prasad, S., Novakovic, M., Marin, P. D., & Tyagi, A. K. (2020). The healing effects of spices in chronic diseases. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 27(26), 4401–4420.

Cardia, G., Silva-Filho, S. E., Silva, E. L., Uchida, N. S., Cavalcante, H., Cassarotti, L. L., Salvadego, V., Spironello, R. A., Bersani-Amado, C. A., & Cuman, R. (2018). Effect of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) essential oil on acute inflammatory response. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2018, 1413940.

Cavanagh, H. M. A., & Wilkinson, J. N. (2002). Biological activities of lavender essential oil. Phytotherapy Research, 16(4), 301–308.

Clifford, M. N. (1999). Chlorogenic acids and other cinnamates – nature, occurrence and dietary burden. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 79(3), 362–372.

de Cássia da Silveira e Sá, R., Andrade, L. N., & de Sousa, D. P. (2013). A review on anti-inflammatory activity of monoterpenes. Molecules, 18(1), 1227–1254.

Dobetsberger, C., & Buchbauer, G. (2011). Actions of essential oils on the central nervous system: An updated review. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 26(5), 300–316.

Dolatabadi, F., Abdolghaffari, A. H., Farzaei, M. H., Baeeri, M., Ziarani, F. S., Eslami, M., Abdollahi, M., & Rahimi, R. (2018). The protective effect of Melissa officinalis L. in visceral hypersensitivity in rat using 2 models of acid-induced colitis and stress-induced irritable bowel syndrome: A possible role of nitric oxide pathway. Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, 24(3), 490–501.

Donelli, D., Antonelli, M., Bellinazzi, C., Gensini, G. F., & Firenzuoli, F. (2019). Effects of lavender on anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Phytomedicine, 65, 153099.

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP), Bampidis, V., Azimonti, G., Bastos, M. L., Christensen, H., Kouba, M., Kos Durjava, M., López-Alonso, M., López Puente, S., Marcon, F., Mayo, B., Pechová, A., Petkova, M., Ramos, F., Sanz, Y., Villa, R. E., Woutersen, R., Brantom, P., Chesson, A., Westendorf, J., Gregoretti, L., Manini, P., & Dusemund, B. (2020). Safety and efficacy of a dried aqueous ethanol extract of Melissa officinalis L. leaves when used as a sensory additive for all animal species. EFSA Journal, 18(2), e06016.

Eivani, M., & Khosronezhad, N. (2020). Melissa officinalis: A memory enhancer remedy. Physiology and Pharmacology, 24(3), 159–164.

Feliú-Hemmelmann, K., Monsalve, F., & Rivera, C. (2013). Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion as physiological stress decreaser. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 6(6), 444–451.

Fismer, K. L., & Pilkington, K. (2012). Lavender and sleep: A systematic review of the evidence. European Journal of Integrative Medicine, 4(4), E436–E447.

Gangemi, S., Minciullo, P. L., Miroddi, M., Chinou, I., Calapai, G., & Schmidt, R. J. (2015). Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products – Part 2: Echinacea purpurea – Lavandula angustifolia. Contact Dermatitis, 72(4), 193–205.

Greff, B., Lakatos, E., Szigeti, J., & Varga, L. (2020). Co-composting with herbal wastes: Potential effects of essential oil residues on microbial pathogens during composting. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 51(5), 457–511.

Gross, A. V., Stolz, E. D., Muller, L. G., Rates, S. M. K., & Ritter, M. R. (2019). Medicinal plants for the "nerves": A review of ethnobotanical studies carried out in South Brazil. Acta Botanica Brasilica, 33(2), 269–282.

Hamza, A. A., Ahmed, M. M., Elwey, H. M., & Amin, A. (2016). Melissa officinalis protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats and potentiates its anticancer activity on MCF-7 cells. PloS One, 11(11), e0167049.

Hasanein, P., & Riahi, H. (2015). Antinociceptive and antihyperglycemic effects of Melissa officinalis essential oil in an experimental model of diabetes. Medical Principles and Practice, 24(1), 47–52.

Häusler, E., Petersen, M., & Alfermann, A. (1993). Isolation of protoplasts and vacuoles from cell suspension cultures of Coleus blumei Benth. Plant Cell Reports, 12(9), 510–512.

Heghes, S. C., Filip, L., Vostinaru, O., Mogosan, C., Miere, D., Iuga, C. A., & Moldovan, M. (2020). Essential oil-bearing plants from Balkan Peninsula: Promising sources for new drug candidates for the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 11, 989.

Heshmati, J., Morvaridzadeh, M., Sepidarkish, M., Fazelian, S., Rahimlou, M., Omidi, A., Palmowski, A., Asadi, A., & Shidfar, F. (2020). Effects of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) on cardio-metabolic outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Phytotherapy Research, 34(12), 3113–3123.

Hitl, M., Kladar, N., Gavaric, N., & Bozin, B. (2021). Rosmarinic acid – human pharmacokinetics and health benefits. Planta Medica, 87(4), 273–282.

Hosseini, S. R., Kaka, G., Joghataei, M. T., Hooshmandi, M., Sadraie, S. H., Yaghoobi, K., Mansoori, K., & Mohammadi, A. (2017). Coadministration of dexamethasone and Melissa officinalis has neuroprotective effects in rat animal model with spinal cord injury. Cell Journal, 19(1), 102–116.

Iranshahy, M., & Javadi, B. (2019). Diet therapy for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease in view of traditional Persian medicine: A review. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, 22(10), 1102–1117.

Jeung, I. C., Jee, D., Rho, C. R., & Kang, S. (2016). Melissa officinalis L. extracts protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 13(2), 139–146.

Joukar, S., & Asadipour, H. (2015). Evaluation of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) effects on heart electrical system. Research in Cardiovascular Medicine, 4(2), e27013.

Joukar, S., Zarisfi, Z., Sepehri, G., & Bashiri, A. (2014). Efficacy of Melissa officinalis in suppressing ventricular arrhythmias following ischemia-reperfusion of the heart: A comparison with amiodarone. Medical Principles and Practice, 23(4), 340–345.

Kaka, G., Yaghoobi, K., Davoodi, S., Hosseini, S. R., Sadraie, S. H., & Mansouri, K. (2016). Assessment of the neuroprotective effects of Lavandula angustifolia extract on the contusive model of spinal cord injury in wistar rats. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 10, 25.

Karabagias, I. K., Karabagias, V. K., & Riganakos, K. A. (2019). Physico-chemical parameters, phenolic profile, in vitro antioxidant activity and volatile compounds of ladastacho (Lavandula stoechas) from the region of Saidona. Antioxidants, 8(4), 80.

Kennedy, D. O., & Wightman, E. L. (2011). Herbal extracts and phytochemicals: Plant secondary metabolites and the enhancement of human brain function. Advances in Nutrition, 2(1), 32–50.

Kikuchi, H., Yuan, B., Yuhara, E., Imai, M., Furutani, R., Fukushima, S., Hazama, S., Hirobe, C., Ohyama, K., Takagi, N., & Toyoda, H. (2014). Involvement of histone H3 phosphorylation via the activation of p38 MAPK pathway and intracellular redox status in cytotoxicity of HL-60 cells induced by Vitex agnus-castus fruit extract. International Journal of Oncology, 45(2), 843–852.

Kim, J., Lee, H., Lim, J., Oh, J., Shin, S. S., & Yoon, M. (2017). The angiogenesis inhibitor ALS-L1023 from lemon-balm leaves attenuates high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through regulating the visceral adipose-tissue function. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 18(4), 846.

Koriem, K. M. M. (2021). Lavandulae aetheroleum oil: A review on phytochemical screening, medicinal applications, and pharmacological effects. Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry, 11(3), 9836–9847.

Kubo, H., Shibato, J., Saito, T., Ogawa, T., Rakwal, R., & Shioda, S. (2015). Unraveling the rat intestine, spleen and liver genome-wide transcriptome after the oral administration of lavender oil by a two-color dye-swap DNA microarray approach. PloS One, 10(7), e0129951.

Lee, E. K., Kim, Y. J., Kim, J. Y., Song, H. B., & Yu, H. G. (2014). Melissa officinalis extract inhibits laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in a rat model. PloS One, 9(10), e110109.

Lesage-Meessen, L., Bou, M., Sigoillot, J. C., Faulds, C. B., & Lomascolo, A. (2015). Essential oils and distilled straws of lavender and lavandin: A review of current use and potential application in white biotechnology. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 99(8), 3375–3385.

Lieshchova, M. A., Bilan, M. V., Bohomaz, A. A., Tishkina, N. M., & Brygadyrenko, V. V. (2020). Effect of succinic acid on the organism of mice and their intestinal microbiota against the background of excessive fat consumption. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 11(2), 153–161.

Lieshchova, M. A., Brygadyrenko, V. V., Tishkina, N. M., Gavrilin, P. M., & Bohomaz, A. A. (2019). Impact of polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, and polyethylene on the organism of mice. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 10(1), 50–55.

Lieshchova, M. A., Tishkina, N. M., Bohomaz, A. A., Gavrilin, P. M., & Brygadyrenko, V. V. (2018). Combined effect of glyphosphate, saccharin and sodium benzoate on rats. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 9(4), 591–597.

Lude, S., Vecchio, S., Sinno-Tellier, S., Dopter, A., Mustonen, H., Vucinic, S., Jonsson, B., Muller, D., Fruchtengarten, L. V., Hruby, K., Nascimento, E. D., Di Lorenzo, C., Restani, P., Kupferschmidt, H., & Ceschi, A. (2016). Adverse effects of plant food supplements and plants consumed as food: Results from the poisons centres-based plant Libra study. Phytotherapy Research, 30(6), 988–996.

Lundstrom, K., Pham, H. T., & Dinh, L. D. (2017). Interaction of plant extracts with central nervous system receptors. Medicines, 4(1), 12.

Mahboubi, M. (2019). Melissa officinalis and rosmarinic acid in management of memory functions and Alzheimer disease. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 9(2), 47–52.

Maleki-Saghooni, N., Karimi, F. Z., Moghadam, Z. B., & Najmabadi, K. M. (2018). The effectiveness and safety of Iranian herbal medicines for treatment of premenstrual syndrome: A systematic review. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, 8(2), 96–113.

Martin, B. R. (2019). Complementary medicine therapies that may assist with weight loss: A narrative review. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 18(2), 115–126.

Martynov, V. O., Hladkyi, O. Y., Kolombar, T. M., & Brygadyrenko, V. V. (2019a). Impact of essential oil from plants on migratory activity of Sitophilus granarius and Tenebrio molitor. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 10(4), 359–371.

Martynov, V. O., Titov, O. G., Kolombar, T. M., & Brygadyrenko, V. V. (2019b). Influence of essential oils of plants on themigration activity of Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). Biosystems Diversity, 27(2), 177–185.

Mehlhorn, H. (2016). Vitex agnus castus. In: Mehlhorn, H. (Ed.). Encyclopedia of parasitology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. Pp. 3023–3023.

Mekonnen, A., Tesfaye, S., Christos, S. G., Dires, K., Zenebe, T., Zegeye, N., Shiferaw, Y., & Lulekal, E. (2019). Evaluation of skin irritation and acute and subacute oral toxicity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oils in rabbit and mice. Journal of Toxicology, 2019, 5979546.

Michel, J., Abd Rani, N. Z., & Husain, K. (2020). A review on the potential use of medicinal plants from Asteraceae and Lamiaceae plant family in cardiovascular diseases. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 11, 852.

Milevskaya, V. V., Prasad, S., & Temerdashev, Z. A. (2019). Extraction and chromatographic determination of phenolic compounds from medicinal herbs in the Lamiaceae and Hypericaceae families: A review. Microchemical Journal, 145, 1036–1049.

Miraj, S., Kopaei, R., & Kiani, S. (2017). Melissa officinalis L.: A review study with an antioxidant prospective. Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine, 22(3), 385–394.

Moradi, M. T., Rafieian-Kopaei, M., & Karimi, A. (2016). A review study on the effect of Iranian herbal medicines against in vitro replication of herpes simplex virus. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, 6(5), 506–515.

Moradkhani, H., Sargsyan, E., Bibak, H., Naseri, B., Sadat-Hosseini, M., Fayazi-Barjin, A., & Meftahizade, H. (2010). Melissa officinalis L., a valuable medicine plant: A review. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4(25), 2753–2759.

Naderi Dastjerdi, M., Darooneh, T., Nasiri, M., Moatar, F., Esmaeili, S., & Ozgoli, G. (2019). Investigating the effect of Melissa officinalis on after-pains: A randomized single-blind clinical trial. Journal of Caring Sciences, 8(3), 129–138.

Ngo, Y. L., Lau, C. H., & Chua, L. S. (2018). Review on rosmarinic acid extraction, fractionation and its anti-diabetic potential. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 121, 687–700.

Noguchi-Shinohara, M., Ono, K., Hamaguchi, T., Iwasa, K., Nagai, T., Kobayashi, S., Nakamura, H., & Yamada, M. (2015). Pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of Melissa officinalis extract which contained rosmarinic acid in healthy individuals: A randomized controlled trial. PloS One, 10(5), e0126422.

Oskouie, A. A., Yekta, R. F., Tavirani, M. R., Kashani, M. S., & Goshadrou, F. (2018). Lavandula angustifolia effects on rat models of Alzheimer’s disease through the investigation of serum metabolic features using NMR metabolomics. Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology, 10(2), 83–92.

Ozarowski, M., Mikolajczak, P. L., Piasecka, A., Kachlicki, P., Kujawski, R., Bogacz, A., Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, J., Szulc, M., Kaminska, E., Kujawska, M., Jodynis-Liebert, J., Gryszczynska, A., Opala, B., Lowicki, Z., Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, A., & Czerny, B. (2016). Influence of the Melissa officinalis leaf extract on long-term memory in scopolamine animal model with assessment of mechanism of action. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2016, 9729818.

Pal, M., Li, S. H., Tewari, S. K., & Sun, H. D. (2013). Diterpenoid compounds from Vitex agnus-castus. Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 49(4), 635–638.

Park, B. Y., Lee, H., Woo, S., Yoon, M., Kim, J., Hong, Y., Lee, H. S., Park, E. K., Hahm, J. C., Kim, J. W., Shin, S. S., Kim, M. Y., & Yoon, M. (2015). Reduction of adipose tissue mass by the angiogenesis inhibitor ALS-L1023 from Melissa officinalis. PloS One, 10(11), e0141612.

Perry, R., Terry, R., Watson, L. K., & Ernst, E. (2012). Is lavender an anxiolytic drug? A systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Phytomedicine, 19, 825–835.

Peterfalvi, A., Miko, E., Nagy, T., Reger, B., Simon, D., Miseta, A., Czéh, B., & Szereday, L. (2019). Much more than a pleasant scent: A review on essential oils supporting the immune system. Molecules, 24(24), 4530.

Raut, J. S., & Karuppayil, S. M. (2014). A status review on the medicinal properties of essential oils. Industrial Crops and Products, 62, 250–264.

Ross, I. A. (2001). Vitex agnus-castus. In: Ross, I. A. Medicinal plants of the world. Chemical constituents, traditional and modern medical uses. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ. Vol. 2. Pp. 427–435.

Saberi, A., Abbasloo, E., Sepehri, G., Yazdanpanah, M., Mirkamandari, E., Sheibani, V., & Safi, Z. (2016). The effects of methanolic extract of Melissa officinalis on experimental gastric ulcers in rats. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 18(7), e24271.

Sadeghzadeh, J., Vakili, A., Bandegi, A. R., Sameni, H. R., Zahedi Khorasani, M., & Darabian, M. (2017). Lavandula reduces heart injury via attenuating tumor necrosis factor-alpha and oxidative stress in a rat model of infarct-like myocardial injury. Cell Journal, 19(1), 84–93.

Safaeian, L., Sajjadi, S. E., Javanmard, S. H., Montazeri, H., & Samani, F. (2016). Protective effect of Melissa officinalis extract against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human vascular endothelial cells. Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 11(5), 383–389.

Safarabadi, A. M., Abbaszadeh, S., Sepahvand, H., & Ebrahimi, F. (2018). An overview of the important analgesic herbs in Iran. Anaesthesia Pain and Intensive Care, 22(4), 522–528.

Saljoughian, S., Roohinejad, S., Bekhit, A. E. A., Greiner, R., Omidizadeh, A., Nikmaram, N., & Khaneghah, A. M. (2018). The effects of food essential oils on cardiovascular diseases: A review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 58(10), 1688–1705.

Samarth, R. M., Samarth, M., & Matsumoto, Y. (2017). Medicinally important aromatic plants with radioprotective activity. Future Science OA, 3(4), FSO247.

Sammar, M., Abu-Farich, B., Rayan, I., Falah, M., & Rayan, A. (2019). Correlation between cytotoxicity in cancer cells and free radical-scavenging activity: In vitro evaluation of 57 medicinal and edible plant extracts. Oncology Letters, 18(6), 6563–6571.

Samuelson, R., Lobl, M., Higgins, S., Clarey, D., & Wysong, A. (2020). The effects of lavender essential oil on wound healing: A review of the current evidence. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 26(8), 680–690.

Sedighi, M., Faghihi, M., Rafieian-Kopaei, M., Rasoulian, B., & Nazari, A. (2019). Cardioprotective effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Melissa officinalis L. against regional ischemia-induced arrhythmia and heart injury after five days of reperfusion in rats. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 18(3), 1530–1542.

Seol, G. H., Lee, Y. H., Kang, P., You, J. H., Park, M., & Min, S. S. (2013). Randomized controlled trial for Salvia sclarea or Lavandula angustifolia: Differential effects on blood pressure in female patients with urinary incontinence undergoing urodynamic examination. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 19(7), 664–670.

Setzer, W. N. (2009). Essential oils and anxiolytic aromatherapy. Natural Product Communications, 4(9), 1305–1316.

Shabanian, G., Heidari-Soureshjani, S., & Salcher, J. (2019). Effectiveness of medicinal herbs on psychological indices before and after surgeries. Plant Science Today, 6(3), 321–327.

Shakeri, A., Sahebkar, A., & Javadi, B. (2016). Melissa officinalis L. – A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 188, 204–228.

Shin, S. S., & Yoon, M. (2020). Regulation of obesity by antiangiogenic herbal medicines. Molecules, 25(19), 4549.

Shinjyo, N., & Green, J. (2017). Are sage, rosemary and lemon balm effective interventions in dementia? A narrative review of the clinical evidence. European Journal of Integrative Medicine, 15, 83–96.

Shojaii, A., Ghods, R., & Fard, M. A. (2016). Medicinal herbs in Iranian traditional medicine for learning and memory. African Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 13(2), 199–209.

Shokri, A., Saeedi, M., Fakhar, M., Morteza-Semnani, K., Keighobadi, M., Hosseini Teshnizi, S., Kelidari, H. R., & Sadjadi, S. (2017). Antileishmanial activity of Lavandula angustifolia and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils and nano-emulsions on Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER). Iranian Journal of Parasitology, 12(4), 622–631.

Sik, B., Kapcsandi, V., Szekelyhidi, R., Hanczne, E. L., & Ajtony, Z. (2019). Recent advances in the analysis of rosmarinic acid from herbs in the Lamiaceae family. Natural Product Communications, 14(7), 1934578X19864216.

Stehbens, W. E. (1986). An appraisal of cholesterol feeding in experimental atherogenesis. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 29(2), 107–128.

Stojković, D., Soković, M., Glamočlija, J., Džamić, A., Ćirić, A., Ristić, M., & Grubišić, D. (2011). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Vitex agnus-castus L. fruits and leaves essential oils. Food Chemistry, 128(4), 1017–1022.

Swiader, K., Startek, K., & Wijaya, C. H. (2019). The therapeutic properties of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.): Reviewing novel findings and medical indications. Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality, 92, 327–335.

Thomas, J. N., Kelley, M. J., & Story, J. A. (1984). Alteration of regression of cholesterol accumulation in rats by dietary pectin. British Journal of Nutrition, 51(3), 339–345.

Todorov, D., Hinkov, A., Shishkova, K., & Shishkov, S. (2014). Antiviral potential of Bulgarian medicinal plants. Phytochemistry Reviews, 13(2), 525–538.

Torki, M., Mohebbifar, A., & Mohammadi, H. (2021). Effects of supplementing hen diet with Lavandula angustifolia and/or Mentha spicata essential oils on production performance, egg quality and blood variables of laying hens. Veterinary Medicine and Science, 7(1), 184–193.

Trivellini, A., Lucchesini, M., Maggini, R., Mosadegh, H., Villamarin, T. S. S., Vernieri, P., Mensuali-Sodi, A., & Pardossi, A. (2016). Lamiaceae phenols as multifaceted compounds: Bioactivity, industrial prospects and role of “positive-stress”. Industrial Crops and Products, 83, 241–254.

Uritu, C. M., Mihai, C. T., Stanciu, G. D., Dodi, G., Alexa-Stratulat, T., Luca, A., Leon-Constantin, M. M., Stefanescu, R., Bild, V., Melnic, S., & Tamba, B. I. (2018). Medicinal plants of the family Lamiaceae in pain therapy: A review. Pain Research and Management, 2018, 7801543.

Valizadeh, E., Ghalichi, F., & Ostadrahimi, A. (2016). Traditional herbal medicine for weight management: A review. International Journal of Medical Research and Health Sciences, 5(11), 393–399.

Wang, D., Yuan, X., Liu, T., Liu, L., Hu, Y., Wang, Z., & Zheng, Q. (2012). Neuroprotective activity of lavender oil on transient focal cerebral ischemia in mice. Molecules, 17(8), 9803–9817.

Woronuk, G., Demissie, Z., Rheault, M., & Mahmoud, S. (2011). Biosynthesis and therapeutic properties of Lavandula essential oil constituents. Planta Medica, 77(1), 7–15.

Wynn, S. G., & Fougère, B. J. (2007). Veterinary herbal medicine: A systems-based approach. Veterinary Herbal Medicine, 291–409.

Xu, P., Wang, K., Lu, C., Dong, L., Gao, L., Yan, M., Aibai, S., Yang, Y., & Liu, X. (2017). The protective effect of lavender essential oil and its main component linalool against the cognitive deficits induced by d-galactose and aluminum trichloride in mice. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2017, 7426538.

Yu, S. H., & Seol, G. H. (2017). Lavandula angustifolia Mill. oil and its active constituent linalyl acetate alleviate pain and urinary residual sense after colorectal cancer surgery: A randomised controlled trial. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2017, 3954181.

Zarei, A., Changizi Ashtiyani, S., Taheri, S., & Rasekh, F. (2014). Comparison between effects of different doses of Melissa officinalis and atorvastatin on the activity of liver enzymes in hypercholesterolemia rats. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, 4(1), 15–23.

Zazharskyi, V. V., Davydenko, P. О., Kulishenko, O. М., Borovik, I. V., & Brygadyrenko, V. V. (2019). Antimicrobial activity of 50 plant extracts. Biosystems Diversity, 27(2), 163–169.

Zazharskyi, V. V., Davydenko, P. О., Kulishenko, O. М., Borovik, I. V., Zazharska, N. M., & Brygadyrenko, V. V. (2020). Antibacterial and fungicidal activities of ethanol extracts of 38 species of plants. Biosystems Diversity, 28(3), 281–289.

Ziaee, M., Khorrami, A., Ebrahimi, M., Nourafcan, H., Amiraslanzadeh, M., Rameshrad, M., Garjani, M., & Garjani, A. (2015). Cardioprotective effects of essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia on isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction in rat. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 14(1), 279–289.

Zvezdina, E. V., Dayronas, J. V., Bochkareva, I. I., Zilfikarov, I. N., Babaeva, E. Y., Ferubko, E. V., Guseynova, Z. A., Serebryanaya, F. K., Kaibova, S. R., & Ibragimov, T. A. (2020). Members of the family Lamiaceae Lindl. as sources of medicinal plant raw materials to obtain neurotropic drugs. Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 8(1), 4–28.

Published
2021-02-25
How to Cite
Lieshchova, M. A., & Brygadyrenko, V. V. (2021). Influence of Lavandula angustifolia, Melissa officinalis and Vitex angus-castus on the organism of rats fed with excessive fat-containing diet . Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 12(1), 169-180. https://doi.org/10.15421/022125

Most read articles by the same author(s)

> >>