Combined effect of glyphosphate, saccharin and sodium benzoate on rats
AbstractHerbicides and food additives are included in many food products for humans. Non-used products or products beyond their expiry date are deposited in places of utilizatioin of solid municipal wastes, where they can take effects on the organisms of mouse-like rodents. Among the herbicides, glyphosphate takes first place in the world for volume of production, and is the most intensely used in agricultural farming. The discussion about negative impact on the organisms of mammals, especially against the background of using various substances and environmental factors, continues. In this study, we determined the combined effect of glyphosphate and food additives on the organism of laboratory animals, which manifested in changes in body weight, condition and indices of mass of the internal organs and blood parameters. Four groups of laboratory male rats were formed, which over 42 days received: unlimited access to clean water; 1% aqueous solution of glyphosate; 1% solution of glyphosphate and 1% solution sodium benzoate; 1% solution of glyphosphate with 1% solution of saccharin. Glyphosphate and glyphosphate with sodium benzoate and saccharin significantly reduced the daily increases in body weight of animals compared to the control group. The studied substances have notable suppressive effect on the immune system and haematopoiesis in general, which is manifested in reduce of relative mass of the thymus and spleen against the background of increase in the amount of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. The inhibition of haematopoiesis is indicated by decrease in the amount of erythrocytes, neurophils and hemoglobin of blood of animals from the experimental groups. The impact on the digestive system of glyphosphate and food additives is indicated by occurance of the effect of “irritation” of mucous membranes, and, as a result, disorders in absorption followed by the disorder in metabolic processes. A dysbalance occurs in enzymic systems of the organism, which is manifested in distrophic processes, especially in the liver parenchyma, indicated by the activity of blood enzymes (ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase), total number and ratio of proteins of blood plasma. We determined the impact of glyphosphate and its mixes with benzoate and saccharin on the pancreas, which manifests in severe pancreatitis with steep increase in the level of glucose of blood. The results of the study allow us to state that mixture of glyphosphate and food additives can cause toxic effect in animals and humans, which often contact with herbicides.
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