Macronutrient status and indicators of acid-alkaline blood balance in cats with chronic renal failure

Keywords: buffer bases; water-ion exchange; hyperphosphatemia; biomarker; symmetric dimethylarginine.

Abstract

Chronic renal failure is a common pathology among cats. According to various literary sources, this pathology is found in 0.5–14.0% of cats. Pathology in cats in our studies is a consequence of glomerulonephritis. The diagnosis of chronic renal failure established on the basis of clinical, instrumental, and laboratory methods of blood and urine testing. Studies have found that chronic renal failure in cats is clinically characterized by apathy, anorexia, dry skin, odor of urea, vomiting, thirst, occurrence in the mouth of uremic ulcers (9.5% of patients), tachycardia (up to 177 beats per minute) tachypnoea (up to 45 respiratory movements per minute), hypertension. In the urine – hypostenuria, erythrocyturia, leukocyturia, kidney epithelium, hyaline and granular cylinders. According to echosonography – increase in echogenicity of the parenchyma, brain substance echone negative, cortico-brain differentiation erased. In the blood test – normochromic macrocytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperazotemia (up to 27.9 mmol/L), hypercreatininemia (324 μmol/L), hyperuricemia (615 μmol/L), 4.6-fold increase in SDMA (symmetric dimethylargin). In chronic renal failure, cats have a significant change in the elemental composition of the blood. In particular, the Na+ content was increased by 3%, Ca2+ 1.6 times, P 2.1 times. Instead, the K+ level was reduced 1.9 times. Changes in acid-base equilibrium (ABE) were also detected: the pH decreased to 7.22; HCO3– by 34%, total CO2 by 32.3%, while anionic difference (AG) and buffer bases (BE) increased by 1.8 and 3.5 times, respectively. Such changes are characteristic of the development of lactic acidosis. The obtained experimental data on changes in mineral metabolism and acid-base equilibrium in the serum of cats in chronic renal failure supplement and clarify information on the pathogenic pathology of the kidneys in cats aged 5–10 years. Blood biochemical data can be used to improve early-stage diagnostics without clinical manifestations of chronic renal failure, their prevention and treatment, and to solve applied scientific problems in the field of nephrology and urology of small animals.

References

Bartges, J. W. (2012). Chronic kidney disease in dogs and cats. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 42(4), 6692.

Bradley, R., Tagkopoulos, I., Kim, M., Kokkinos, Y., Panagiotakos, T., Kennedy, J., De Meyer, G., Watson, P., & Elliott, J. (2019). Predicting early risk of chronic kidney disease in cats using routine clinical laboratory tests and machine learning. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 33(6), 2644–2656.

Brown, S. A. (2005). А new approach to chronic kidney disease. Waltham Focus, 15(1), 2–6 (in Russian).

Brunetto, M. A., Zafalon, R. V. A., Teixeira, F. A., Vendramini, T. H. A., Rentas, M. F., Pedrinelli, V., Risolia, L. W., & Macedo, H. T. (2019). Phosphorus and sodium contents in commercial wet foods for dogs and cats. Veterinary Medicine and Science, 5(4), 494–499.

Chacar, F. C., Kogika, M. M., Ferreira, A. C., Kanayama, K. K., & Reche, A. (2019). Total serum magnesium in cats with chronic kidney disease with nephrolithiasis. Journal Feline Medicine and Surgery, 21(12), 1172–1180.

Chen, H., Avital, Y., Bruchim, Y., Aroch, I., & Segev, G. (2019). Urinary heat shock protein-72: A novel marker of acute kidneyinjury and chronic kidney disease in cats. Veterinary Journal, 243, 77–81.

Colakoglu, E. C., Alihosseini, H., & Haydardedeoglu, A. E. (2019). Clinical significance of pretreatment Ca-P solubility product in 47cats with chronic kidney disease. Ankara Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi, 66(4), 385–389.

Conroy, M., Brodbelt, D. C., O’Neill, D., Chang, Y. M., & Elliott, J. (2019). Chronic kidney disease in cats attending primary care practice in the UK: A VetCompass (TM) study. Veterinary Record, 184(17), 526.

Dobenecker, B., Webel, A., Reese, S., & Kienzle, E. (2018). Effect of a high phosphorus diet on indicators of renal health in cats. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 20(4), 339–343.

Geddes, R. F., Jepson, R. E., Forcada, Y., Elliott, J., & Syme, H. M. (2018). Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the calcium sensing receptor and chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder in cats. Veterinary Journal, 235, 34–41.

Hall, J. A., Yerramilli, M., Obare, E., Yerramilli, M., & Jewell, D. E. (2014a). Comparison of serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine and creatinine as kidney function biomarkers in cats with chronic kidney disease. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 28(6), 1676–1683.

Hall, J. A., Yerramilli, M., Obare, E., Yerramilli, M., Almes, K., & Jewell, D. E. (2016). Serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine and creatinine in dogs with naturally occurring chronic kidney disease. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 30(3), 794–802.

Hall, J. A., Yerramilli, M., Obare, E., Yerramilli, M., Yu, S., & Jewell, D. E. (2014b). Comparison of serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine and creatinine as kidney function biomarkers in healthy geriatric cats fed reduced protein foods enriched with fish oil, L-carnitine, and medium-chain triglycerides. Veterinary Journal, 202(3), 588–596.

Hall, J. A., Yerramilli, M., Obare, M., Yerramilli, M., Melendez, L. D., & Jewel, D. E. (2015). Relationship between lean body mass and serum renal biomarkers in healthy dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 29(3), 808–814.

Jepson, R. E., Brodbelt, D., Vallance, C., Syme, H. M., & Elliott, J. (2009). Evaluation of predictors of the development of azotemia in cats. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 23, 806–813.

Jepson, R. E., Elliott, J., Brodbelt, D., & Syme, H. M. (2007). Effect of control of systolic blood pressure on survival in cats with systemic hypertension. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 21(3), 402–409.

King, J. N., Tasker, S., Gunn-Moore, D. A., & Strehlau, G. (2007). Prognostic factors in cats with chronic kidney disease. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 21(5), 906–916.

Kushnir, Y. S. (2014). Hemodynamika, funktsionalnyi stan endoteliiu sudyn, nyrok ta trombotsytiv zalezhno vid indeksu masy tila pry khronichnii sertsevii nedostatnosti zi zberezhenoiu systolichnoiu funktsiieiu [Hemodynamics, the functional state of the endothelium of blood vessels, kidneys and platelets, depending on the body mass index in chronic heart failure with preserved systolic function]. Clinical Medicine, 19(1), 29–36 (in Ukrainian).

Kuwahara, Y., Ohba, Y., Kitoh, K., Kuwahara, N., & Kitagawa, H. (2006). Association of laboratory data and death within one month in cats with chronic renal failure. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 47, 446–450.

Langston, C. (2004). Microalbuminuria in cats. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 40, 251–254.

Le Sueur, A. N. V., Geraldes, S. S., Melchert, A., Takahira, R. K., Coyne, M., Murphy, R., Szlosek, D., & Guimaraes-Okamoto, P. T. C. (2019). Symmetric dimethylarginine concentrations in dogs with International Renal Interest Society stage 4 chronic kidney disease undergoing intermittent hemodialysis. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 33(6), 2635–2643.

Lees, G. E., Brown, S. A., Elliott, J., Grauer, G. F., & Vaden, S. L. (2005). Assessment and management of proteinuria in dogs and cats: 2004 ACVIM Forum Consensus Statement (Small Animal). Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 19(3), 377–385.

Levchenko, V. I., Vlizlo, V. V., Kondrakhin, I. P., Holovakha, V. I., Morozenko, D. V., Sakhniuk, V. V., Slivinska, L. H., Chumachenko, V. V., Tsvilikhovskyi, M. I., Bezukh, V. M., Bohatko, L. M., Vovkotrub, N. V., Melnyk, A. Y., Moskalenko, V. P., Piddubniak, O. V., Suslova, N. I., Tyshkivskyi, M. I., Ulyzko, S. I., & Shchurevych, H. O. (2017). Klinichna diahnostyka khvorob tvaryn [Clinical diagnosis of animal diseases]. Bila Tserkva, Ukraine (in Ukrainian).

Levchenko, V. I., Vlizlo, V. V., Kondrakhin, I. P., Melnychuk, D. O., Halias, V. P., Sakhniuk, V. V., Holovakha, V. I., Tomchuk, V. A., Hryshchenko, V. V., Tsvilikhovskyi, L. I., Apukhovska, L. I., Slivinska, L. H., & Melnyk, A. Y. (2019). Veterynarna klinichna biokhimiia [Veterinary clinical biochemistry]. Bila Tserkva, Ukraine (in Ukrainian).

Levchenko, V. I., Vlizlo, V. V., Kondrakhin, I. P., Melnyk, Y. L., Sudakov, M. O., Chumachenko, V. I., Bezukh, V. M., Bohatko, L. M., Holovakha, V. I., Lysenko, V. V., & Sakhniuk, V. V. (2004). Klinichna diahnostyka vnutrishnikh khvorob tvaryn [Clinical diagnosis of internal diseases of animals]. Bila Tserkva, Ukraine (in Ukrainian).

Littman, M. P. (2011). Protein-losing nephropathy in small animals. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 41, 31–62.

Maniaki, E., & Finch, N. (2018). Chronic kidney disease in cats and dogs: Managing proteinuria. In Practice, 40(7), 266–280.

Marino, C. L., Lascelles, B. D., Vaden, S. L., Gruen, M. E., & Marks, S. L. (2014). The prevalence and classification of chronic kidney disease in cats randomly selected from four age groups and in cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 16(6), 465–472.

Nabity, M. B., Lees, G. E., Boggess, M., Yerramilli, M., Obare, E., Yerramilli, M., Rakitin, A., Aguiar, J., & Relford, R. (2015). Symmetric dimethylarginine assay validation, stability, and evaluation as a marker for early detection of chronic kidney disease in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 29(4), 1036–1044.

Polzin, D. (2011). Chronic kidney disease. In: Bartegs, J., & Polzin, D. J. (Eds.). Nephrology and urology of small animals. Wiley Blackwell, Ames. Pp. 431–471.

Polzin, D. J. (2010). Chronic kidney disease. In: Ettinger, S. J., & Feldman, E. C. (Eds.). Veterinary internal medicine. 7th ed. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis.

Polzin, D. J. (2011). Chronic kidney disease in small animals. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 41(1), 15–30.

Schrier, R. W., Wang, W., Poole, B., & Mitra, A. (2004). Acute renal failure: Definitions, diagnosis, pathogenesis, and therapy. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 114(1), 5–14.

Shvarcz, G. Y. (2002). Pharmacotherapy of osteoporosis. Medical News Agency, Moscow (in Russian).

Slawuta, P., Kumiega, E., Sikorska-Kopylowicz, A., Sapikowski, G., & Kurosad, A. (2019). An attempt to use the serum concentration of the phosphate (P-i) and the Ca × P product as markers of the progression of chronickidney disease in cats. Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 22(4), 647–652.

Sobolev, V. E. (2011). Nefrologija i urologija domashnej koshki (Felis catus) [Nephrology and urology of the domestic cat (Felis catus)]. Rossijskij Veterinarnyj Zhurnal, Melkie Domashnie i Dikie Zhivotnye, 1, 35–40 (in Russian).

Syme, H. M., Markwell, P. J., Pfeiffer, D., & Elliott, J. (2006). Survival of cats with naturally occurring chronic renal failure is related to severity of proteinuria. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 20(3), 528–535.

Szczepankiewicz, B., Paslawska, U., Nowak, M., Bachor, R., Czyzewska-Buczynska, A., Paslawski, R., & Szewczuk, Z. (2019). Early detection of active glomerular lesions in dogs and cats using podocin. Journal Veterinary Research, 63(4), 573–577.

Van den Broek, D. H. N., Chang, Y.-M., Elliott, J., & Jepson, R. E. (2018). Prognostic importance of plasma total magnesium in a cohort of cats with azotemic chronic kidney disease. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 32(4), 1359–1371.

Vientós-Plotts, A. I., Behrend, E. N., Welles, E. G., Chew, D. J., Gaillard, P. R., Busler, J. N., & Lee, H. P. (2018). Effect of blood contamination on results of dipstick evaluation and urine protein-to-urine creatinine ratio for urine samples from dogs and cats. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 79(5), 525–531.

Published
2020-05-12
How to Cite
Holovakha, V. I., Mostovyi, E. V., Sliusarenko, A. O., Piddubnyak, O. V., Suslova, N. I., & Matsinovich, M. S. (2020). Macronutrient status and indicators of acid-alkaline blood balance in cats with chronic renal failure . Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 11(2), 266-271. https://doi.org/10.15421/022039