Current epizootological and epidemiological aspects of brucellosis in Ukraine
AbstractThe analysis of monitoring studies for brucellosis among farm and wild animals for the period 2004–2021 in Ukraine was performed. The total number of tests on brucellosis during this period among cattle amounted to 62,917,946 animals, small ruminants – 10,898,075, pigs – 4,146,751, horses – 116,668, wild pigs – 22,306, roe deer – 11,548, hares (only the last two years were studied) – 430 animals. During the same period, camels, deer, dogs, cats, rabbits, poultry, zoo animals, wild animals including moose, foxes and badgers were examined in case of suspicion or request. During this period, seropositive animals were found among cattle – 607, small ruminants – 84, pigs – 219, horses – 4, dogs – 2, wild boars – 52, hares – 7. There were years when no positive animals were detected (2012, 2015), 1–3 animals were detected in 2008, 2010, 2013, 2014, 2016, 2017. The largest number of animals positive for brucellosis was detected in 2004 and 2006, respectively 107 and 328 animals. Some regions stand out among others with a significant number of positive results. Thus, in Sumy region, positive animals were isolated in 2004, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2013, 2019, 2020, 2021 (a total of 45 animals), in Dnipropetrovsk region in 2004, 2016, 2017, 2018 (a total of 11 animals). The results of the analysis showed that human brucellosis in Ukraine is registered sporadically (single cases). During the analyzed period, 32 cases of human brucellosis were detected, during the period 1994–2021, the diagnosis of brucellosis was confirmed in 45 people. Approximately 50% of human brucellosis cases in Ukraine are introduced from abroad. The vector role of wild animals-reservoirs in the spread of the brucellosis pathogen in the direction of farm animals and from them to humans is confirmed. Among the regions, the most disadvantaged were Chernihiv (cases in 2009, 2011, 2014, 2015), Lviv (2005, 2011, 2021) and Kyiv (2008, 2014, 2021). During the period 1994–2021, the disease was not registered in people at all in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Volyn, Vinnytsia, Transcarpathian, Zaporizhzhia, Kirovohrad, Rivne, Ternopil, Cherkasy regions.
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