Role of Hp system in adaptation of specific immunity indices to the influence of moderate physical activity
AbstractThe aim of this study is to determine the role of haptoglobin phenotype in realization of adaptive responses of cellular and humoral immunity indices to moderate exercise caused by physical training. The study was implemented in the group of second-year students aged 18–20 who lived in the same climatic and geographical conditions for a long period of time. The students didn’t have any acute or chronic diseases and attended the main group of physical training. 60 persons were investigated. Immune system indices analysis was carried out in September before and after physical training lessons. Leukocyte level was calculated using hemocytometer, lymphocyte level was determined on the base of blood smear (dyeing for Romanowsky–Giemsa). Expression of surface antigene by peripheral blood lymphocyte was determined by immuno-fluorescence method with the use of monoclonal antibodies. The level of immunoglobulin in plasma was determined by radial immunodiffusion or Mancini method. To assess the phenotype of haptoglobin (Hp) we used the method of electrophoresis in starch gels. In the course of research we have detected the reduction of the relative and total number of lymphocytes regardless of haptoglobin phenotype in the group of students after physical training; this is a typical feature of the initial stages of stress response. We observed statistically reliable decrease in total number of analyzed subpopulations of T-lymphocyte in the group of students with phenotype Hp2-2 which was obviously the result of changes in the general level of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. In the group of students with phenotype Hp1-1 absolute number of T-lymphocyte with phenotype CD3+ and CD4+ is reduced. In the group of students with phenotype Hp2-1 we have seen only the tendency to decrease in functional mature T-lymphocyte and their helper subpopulation. In the group of students with phenotype Hp2-2 the relative number of helper T-lymphocyte with the phenotype of CD4+ was reduced after moderate physical activity and it caused the decline in immune regulating index CD4+/CD8+. Changes of the level of B-lymphocyte with CD72+ phenotype were not found regardless of the haptoglobin phenotype. Analysis of the impact of moderate physical activity on major classes of serum immunoglobulin revealed the reduction of IgG level in the group of students with phenotype Hp2-2. Thus, we draw the conclusion that serum haptoglobin system shares the adaptive reactions of immune system to moderate physical activity. The most pressing phenotype is Hp2-2. Even in the group of students with immune pressing haptoglobin phenotypes, the analyzed parameters do not go beyond the homeostatic regulations after physical activity and it indicates satisfactory level of immune system adaptation to performed physical activity.
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