Radionuclide activity and the immune system functioning in residents of radiation contaminated areas
AbstractThe objective of this research is to assess the relation of radioactive contamination degree to immune system functioning, in the absence or presence of additional potential immunosuppressants. To achieve the objective, during the period of 1995–2015 we examined 250 people, students of Cherkasy State University, who lived in the areas of enhanced radiation monitoring before. Also we evaluated the additional impact of the emotional stress caused by examinations on examined students. Indicators of cellular immunity were determined by immunophenotyping and dyeing using Romanowsky-Giemsa method. The level of immunoglobulins in blood serum was determined by radial immunodiffusion (Mancini method). The level of cortisol in blood serum was determined by immunoenzyme method. We have found that in absence of the emotional stress among residents of the areas contaminated with radionuclides, cortisol level remained at the upper limit of homeostatic norm. There is an average positive correlation between the activity of radionuclides in the territories of residence and the level of cortisol. There are marked average positive correlations between the activity of radionuclides and the level of neutrophils, and low positive correlations with the levels of IgG and IgM in blood serum. Average negative correlations between the activity of radionuclides and the following parameters are also observed: absolute and relative number of functionally mature T-lymphocytes with phenotype CD3+, absolute and relative number of their helper subpopulation CD4+, absolute and relative number of natural killer cells with phenotype CD16+; and strong negative correlations with immunoregulatory index CD4+/CD8+. Cortisol level shows the similar correlation with the same parameters, but correlation coefficient is lower. Under conditions of additional stress, caused by emotional load during the examinations, cortisol level significantly increases. This enhanced previously discovered correlations and revealed new ones: average negative correlations between radionuclide activity / cortisol level and expression of pan-T cell marker CD5, medium positive correlations with absolute and relative number of suppressor T-lymphocytes with phenotype CD8+, correlation with the level of serum IgG changes from positive to negative. Additional short-term stress factor combined with chronic influence of low doses of radiation increases the dependence of immunosuppression, caused by radiation contamination of the areas where examined students live, and causes failures in the work of compensatory mechanisms, particularly at the level of serum immunoglobulin products.
Balogh, A., Persa, E., Bogdaґndi, E.N., Benedek, A., Hegyesi, H., Saґfraґny, G., Lumniczky, K., 2013. The effect of ionizing radiation on the homeostasis and functional integrity of murine splenic regulatory T cells. Inﬂamm. Res. 62, 201–212. >> doi: 10.1007/s00011-012-0567-y
Drannik, G.N., 1999. Clinical immunology and allergology [Klinicheskaja immunologija i allergologija]. Astroprint, Odessa (in Russian).
Finlay, D., Cantrell, D.A., 2011. Metabolism, migration and memory in cytotoxic T cells. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 11, 109–117. >> doi: 10.1038/nri2888
Godekmerdan, A., Ozden, M., Ayar, A., 2004. Diminished cellular and humoral immunity in workers occupationally exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Arch. Med. Res. 35, 324–328. >> doi: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2004.04.005
Hommel, M., Hodgkin, P.D. 2007. TCR afﬁnity promotes CD8+ T cell expansion by regulating survival. J. Immunol. 179, 2250–2260.
Hoshi, M., Konstantinov, Y.O., Evdeeva, T.Y., Kovalev, A.I., Aksenov, A.S., Koulikova, N.V., Sato, H., Takatsui, T., Takada, J., Endo, S., Shibata, Y., Yamashita, S. 2000. Radiocesium in children residing in the western districts of the Bryansk oblast from 1991–1996. Health Phys. 79, 182–186.
Jahns, J., Anderegg, U., Saalbach, A., Rosin, B., Patties, I., Glasow, A., Kamprad, M., Scholz, M., Hildebrandt, G. 2011. Influence of low dose irradiation on differentiation, maturation and T-cell activation of human dendritic cells. Mutat. Res. 709–710, 32–39. >> doi: 10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2011.02.007
Khaitov, R.M., Leskov, V.P., 2001. Immunity and stress [Immunitet i stress]. Rossijskij Fiziologicheskij Zhurnal 87(8), 1060–1072 (in Russian).
Kinet, S., Swainson, L., Lavanya, M., Mongellaz, C., Montel-Hagen, A., Craveiro, M., Manel, N., Battini, J.L., Sitbon, M., Taylor, N., 2007. Isolated receptor binding domains of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 envelopes bind Glut-1 on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Retrovirology 4, 31. >> doi: 10.1186/1742-4690-4-31
Manuck, S.B., Cohen, S., Rabin, B.S., 1991. Individual differences in cellular immune response to stress. Psychol. Sci. 2, 111–114. >> doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.1991.tb00110.x
McMahon, D., Vdovenko, V., Karmaus, W., 2014. Effects of long-term low-level radiation exposure after the Chernobyl catastrophe on immunoglobulins in children residing in contaminated areas: prospective and cross-sectional studies. En-viron. Health 13(1), 36–50. >> doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-13-36
Morita, N., Takamura, N., Ashizawa, K., Shimasaki, T., Yamashita, S., Okumura, Y., 2005. Measurement of the whole-body 137Cs in residents around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 113, 326–329. >> doi: 10.1093/rpd/nch457
Sajjadieh, M.R., Sheikh, L.V., Kuznetsova, V.B., 2009. Effect of ionizing radiation on development process of T-cell population lymphocytes in Chernobyl children. Iran. J. Radiat. Res. 7, 127–133.
Shirinsky, I., Shirinsky, V., 2001. Social stress disorders and immunity. Russ. J. Immunol. 6(2), 207–214.
Telnov, V.I., Zhuntova, G.V., 2002. Genotypic analysis of biochemical status of people received radioactive irradiation [Genotipicheskij analiz biohimicheskogo statusa u ljudej, obluchennyh v znachitel'nyh dozah]. Voprosy Medicinskoj Khimii 44(5), 56–60 (in Russian).
Titov, L., Kharitonic, G., Gourmanchuk, I., Ignatenko, S., 1995. Effects of radiation on the production of immunoglobulins in children subsequent to the Chernobyl disaster. Allergy Asthma Proc. 16(4), 185–193. >>doi: 10.2500/108854195778666838
Weng, L., Williams, R.O., Vieira, P.L., Screaton, G., Feldmann, M., Dazzi, F., 2010. The therapeutic activity of low-dose irradiation on experimental arthritis depends on the induction of endogenous regulatory T cell activity. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 69, 1519–1526. >> doi: 10.1136/ard.2009.121111
Yarilin, A.A., 1999. Osnovy immunologii [Immunology funda-mentals]. Medicine, Moscow (in Russian).
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons «Attribution» 4.0 License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.