The impact of endogenous intoxication on biochemical indicators of blood of pregnant cows

Keywords: toxicology, midwifery, endotoxin, enzymes, antioxidants, total protein, urine, creatinine


The notion “endotoxin” is conditional, for any normal metabolit has a toxic impact if it has an excessive accumulation in an organism. Endotoxins include products of breakdown of tissue proteins, peroxides and other products of free radical oxidation, low molecular weight toxins, toxins of microorganisms. Current knowledge on the mechanism of endotoxin action on the organism of pregnant cows is based on the key role of the immune system: it provides animals with protection against infections, eliminates extraneous elements of endogenous and exogenous origin. It is understood that under endogenous intoxication, toxic metabolites suppress the activity of an organism’s immune system and decreases the resistance of an organism to negative effects of environmental factors. Animals under endogenous intoxication had the following clinical symptoms: swelling of mammary gland, edemas of external genitals, anemia of mucous membranes, functional disorders of proventriculuses and intestines, and the animals were stressed. It was found that under endogenous intoxication at 8–9 months of pregnancy, the blood of highly-productive cows had a tendency of decrease in the number of erythrocytes by 21.0% and decrease in the level of hemoglobin by 24.3%, and increase in the number of leucocytes by 7.6% compared to the value for the blood of cows with physiological pregnancy process. The development of endogenous intoxication among pregnant cows causes disorders in protein-synthesizing function of liver, which is indicated by decrease in the level of total protein and its fractions. We found that endogenous intoxication decreased the content of total protein in the blood by 18.4%. Over the period of study, among pregnant cows under the development of endogenous intoxication, heightened activity of amino transferases in the blood was observed. In the ninth month of pregnancy, the activity of amino transferases in blood serum of cows from the experimental group increased by 28.6%, and the activity of aspartate aminotransferase increased by 20.1% respectively. Increase in the activity of amino transferases and decrease in the level of total protein and its fractions in the blood serum is one of the first biochemical tests for the diagnosis of endotoxin manifestations and indicates destructive processes in the liver. We found that pregnant cows under the development of endogenous intoxication suffered disorders in detoxicating function of the liver and disorders in filtrating function of the kidneys. The developing endogenous intoxication of pregnant cows suppressed the activity of enzymes in their glutathione system of antioxidant protection, which is indicated by decrease in the activity of glutathione peroxidase by 27.5%, glutathione reductase by 42.9%, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by 11.2% in the blood serum. The lowest activity of enzymes of glutathione system in the blood of highly-productive cows under endogenous intoxication was observed in their ninth month of pregnancy, which is related to increase in activation of processes of lipid peroxidation and imbalance between the activity of antioxidant system and intensity of lipid peroxidation. A significant increase in the content of lipid hydroperoxides by 70.9% and in concentration of malondialdehide by 54.8% was observed. Imbalance in generation of active forms of oxygen and their metabolites, exhaustion of antioxidant system and disorders in its balance cause oxidative stress. 


Andersen, P. H. (2003). Bovine Endotoxicosis – Aspects of relevance to produc tion diseases. A review. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 44(1), 57.

Boosman, R., Mutsaers, C. W., & Klarenbeek, A. (1991). The role of endotoxin in the pathogenesis of acute bovine laminitis. Veterinary Quarterly, 13, 155–162.

Chala, I. V., & Rusak, V. S. (2016). Redoks-potencial ta stan perekysnogo okys nennja lipidiv krovi koriv, shho utrymujut’sja u ekologichno nespryjatlyvyh umovah [Redox-potential and the state of peroxide oxidation of blood lipids in cows kept under ecologically unfavorable conditions]. Scientific Messen ger LNUVMBT named after S. Z. Gzhytskyj, 66, 197–201 (in Ukrainian).

Clark, E. S., Gantley, B., & Moore, J. N. (1991). Effects of slow infusion of a low dosage of endotoxin on systemic haemodynamics in conscious horses. Equine Veterinary Journal, 23, 18–21.

Culbertson, R., & Osburn, B. I. (1980). The biologic effects of bacterial endotoxin: A short review. Veterinary Research Communications, 4, 3–14.

Eades, S. C. (1993). Endotoxemia in dairy cattle: Role of eicosanoids in reticulo rumen stasis. Journal of Dairy Science, 76, 414–420.

Fabris, T. F., Laporta, J., Corra, F. N., Torres, Y. M., Kirk, D. J., McLean, D. J., Chapman, J. D., & Dahl, G. E. (2017). Effect of nutritional immunomodula tion and heat stress during the dry period on subsequent performance of cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 100(8), 6733–6742.

Fedorovych, V. V. (2017). Vplyv pokaznykiv vidtvornoji zdatnosti na formuvan nja molochnoji produktyvnosti koriv symental’s’koji porody [The impact of reproductive capacity indicators of Simmental cattle on their milk productivi ty]. Scientific Messenger LNUVMBT named after S. Z. Gzhytskyj, 74, 52–56 (in Ukrainian).

Gutyj, B. V., Hufriy, D. F., Hunchak, V. M., Khariv, I. I., Levkivska, N. D., & Huberuk, V. О. (2016). The influence of metisevit and metifen on the intensity of lipid per oxidation in the blood of bulls on nitrate load. Scientific Messenger LNUVMBT named after S. Z. Gzhytskyj, 70, 67–70.

Gutyj, B. V., Murs’ka, S. D., Gufrij, D. F., Hariv, I. I., Levkivs’ka, N. D., Nazaruk, N. V., Gajdjuk, M. B., Pryjma, O. B., Bilyk, O. J., & Guta, Z. A. (2016). Influence of cadmium loading on the state of the antioxidant system in the organism of bulls. Visnyk of Dnipropetrovsk University. Biology, Ecology, 24(1), 96–102.

Gutyj, B., Khariv, I., Binkevych, V., Binkevych, O., Levkivska, N., Levkivskyj, D., & Vavrysevich, Y. (2017). Research on acute and chronic toxity of the experimental drug Аmprolinsyl. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(1), 41–45.

Gutyj, B., Lavryshyn, Y., Binkevych, V., Binkevych, O., Paladischuk, О., Strons’kyj, J., & Hariv, I. (2016). Influence of Metisevit on the activity of enzyme and nonenzyme link of antioxidant protection under the bull’s body cadmium loading. Scientific Messenger LNUVMBT named after S. Z. Gzhytskyj, 66, 52–58.

Gutyj, B., Martyshchuk, T., Bushueva, I., Semeniv, B., Parchenko, V., Kapla ushenko, A., Magrelo, N., Hirkovyy, A., Musiy, L., & Murska, S. (2017). Morphological and biochemical indicators of blood of rats poisoned by carbon tetrachloride and subject to action of liposomal preparation. Regula tory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(2), 304–309.

Gutyj, B., Paska, M., Levkivska, N., Pelenyo, R., Nazaruk, N., & Guta, Z. (2016). Study of acute and chronic toxicity of ‘injectable mevesel’ investigational drug. Biological Bulletin of Bogdan Chmelnitskiy Melitopol State Pedago gical University, 6(2), 174–180.

Hariv, M. I., & Gutyj, B. V. (2016). Influence of the liposomal preparation Butain tervite on protein synthesis function in the livers of rats under the influence of carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Visnyk of Dnipropetrovsk University. Biology, Medicine, 7(2), 123–126.

Hrymak, Y. I., & Hunchak, V. M. (2014). Yodna nedostatnist ta korektsija repro duktyvnoji funktsiji tvaryn preparatamy yodu [Iodine deficiency and correc tion of the cows’ reproductive function using iodine Preparation]. Naukovyi Visnyk Lvivskoho Natsionalnoho Universytetu Veterynarnoi Medytsyny ta Biotekhnolohii imeni S. Z. Gzhytskoho, 59, 23–41 (in Ukrainian).

Hrymak, Y. I., Hunchak, V. M., & Hutyi, B. V. (2015). Patent na korysnu model № 1026518. Sposib korektsiji fermentnoji systemy antyoksydantnoho zakhystu orhanizmu hlybokotilnykh koriv za endotoksykozu [Methods of correction of the enzyme system of antioxidant protection of the organism of cows in advanced pregnancy with endotoxicosis]; zaiavnyk ta patentovlas nyk Lvivskyi Natsionalnyi Universytet Veterynarnoi Medytsyny ta Biotekhnolohii imeni S. Z. Gzhytskoho. zaiavl. 15.04.2015; opubl. 10.11.2015, Bull. 21 (in Ukrainian).

Huberuk, V., Gutyj, B., Gufriy, D., Binkevych, V., Hariv, I., Binkevych, O., & Sa lata, R. (2017). Impact of antioxidants on enzyme activities of glutatione sys tem of antioxidant defense in bodies of bulls with acute nitrate and nitrite toxicity. Scientific Messenger LNUVMBT named after S. Z. Gzhytskyj, 77, 220–224.

Hunchak, A. V., Ratych, I. B., Gutyj, B. V., & Paskevych, H. A. (2016). Metabo lichna diia yodu v orhanizmi ptytsi za yoho nestachi abo nadlyshku v ratsioni [Metabolic effects of iodine in poultry for its deficiency or excess in the diet]. Naukovyi visnyk Lvivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu veterynarnoi medy tsyny ta biotekhnolohii imeni S. Z. Gzhytskoho, 67, 70–76 (in Ukrainian).

Katholm, J., & Andersen, P. H. (1992). Acute coliform mastitis in dairy cows: Endotoxin and biochemical changes in plasma and colony-forming units in milk. Veterinary Record, 131, 513–514.

Khariv, M., & Gutyj, B. (2017). Dynamika fagocytarnoji aktyvnosti nejtrofiliv u shhuriv za umov oksydacijnogo stresu ta diji liposomal’nogo preparatu [Dynamics of phagocytic activity of neutrophils in rats under oxidative stress and the action of liposomal preparation]. Animal Biology, 19(1), 119–124 (in Ukrainian).

Khariv, M., Gutyj, B., Butsyak, V., & Khariv, I. (2016). Hematological indices of rat organisms under conditions of oxidative stress and liposomal preparation action. Biological Bulletin of Bogdan Chmelnitskiy Melitopol State Pedagogical University, 6(1), 276–289.

Kryshtalska, M., Hunchak, V., & Gutyj, B. (2017). Influence of the drug “Tri fuzol” on the functional state of the liver in chickens for eymeriozic invasion. Scientific Messenger LNUVMBT named after S. Z. Gzhytskyj, 77, 76–79.

Lavriv, P. Y. (2016). Antioxidant protection and peroxydation lipid of body cows of high calves for the prevention of salmonella under the influence of nanpreparation Germakap. Scientific Messenger LNUVMBT named after S. Z. Gzhytskyj, 66, 112–115.

Lavryshyn, Y. Y., Varkholyak, I. S., Martyschuk, T. V., Guta, Z. А., Ivankiv, L. B., Paladischuk, О. R., Murska, S. D., Gutyj, B. V., & Gufriy, D. F. (2016). The biological significance of the antioxidant defense system of animals body. Scientific Messenger LNUVMBT named after S. Z. Gzhytskyj, 66, 100–111.

Luzhnikov, Y. A., Goldfarb, Y. S., & Ilyashenko, K. K. (2007). Endotoxicosis as the contents of posresuscitative disease in acute poisoning. Obsaa Reanima tologia, 3(6), 48–54.

Macmillan, K., López Helguera, I., Behrouzi, A., Gobikrushanth, M., Hoff, B., & Colazo, M. G. (2017). Accuracy of a cow-side test for the diagnosis of hyperketonemia and hypoglycemia in lactating dairy cows. Research in Veterinary Science, 115, 327–331.

Mainardes, G. A., & DeVries, T. J. (2016). Effect of social feeding environment on the feeding behaviour of dairy cows and their willingness to consume a novel feed. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 185, 23–29.

Martyshuk, T. V., Gutyj, B. V., & Vishchur, O. I. (2016). Level of lipid peroxida tion products in the blood of rats under the influence of oxidative stress and under the action of liposomal preparation of “Butaselmevit”. Biological Bul letin of Bogdan Chmelnitskiy Melitopol State Pedagogical University, 6(2), 22–27.

Panevnyk, V., & Suprovych, T. (2016). Etiologichni chynnyky mastytiv koriv ukrai’ns’koji chorno-rjaboji molochnoji porody [Etiological factors of mastitis of the Ukrainian black-pied dairy breed of cows]. Scientific Messenger LNUVMBT named after S. Z. Gzhytskyj, 70, 191–195 (in Ukrainian).

Rodríguez, E. M., Arís, A., & Bach, A. (2017). Associations between subclinical hypocalcemia and postparturient diseases in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 2017.

Shcherbatyy, A. G., Slivinska, L. G., Gutyj, B. V., Golovakha, V. I., Piddubnyak, A. V., & Fedorovuch, V. L. (2017). The influence of a mineral-vitamin pre mix on the metabolism of pregnant horses with microelemetosis. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(2), 293–398.

Sheldon, I. M., Wathes, D. C., & Dobson, H. (2006). The management of bovine reproduction in elite herds. Veterinary Journal, 171, 70–78.

Slivinska, L., Demydjuk, S., Shcherbatyy, А., Fedorovich, V., & Tyndyk, I. (2017). Etiologija ta kliniko-biohimichni pokaznyky krovi za alimentarnoji osteodystrofiji koriv [Etiology and clinical biochemical parameters of blood for nutritional osteodystrophy of cows]. Scientific Messenger LNUVMBT named after S. Z. Gzhytskyj, 73, 79–83 (in Ukrainian).

Smolynets’, I. B., Gutyj, B. V., Khariv, І. І., Petryshak, O. Y., & Lytvyn, R. I. (2016). Pharmaceutical marketing: objectives and types. Scientific Messenger LNUVMBT named after S. Z. Gzhytskyj, 69, 151–154.

van der Drift, S. G. A., Houweling, M., Bouman, M., Koets, A. P., Tielens, A. G. M., Nielen, M., & Jorritsma, R. (2015). Effects of a single glucocorticoid injection on propylene glycol-treated cows with clinical ketosis. Veterinary Journal, 204(2), 144–149.

Vieira-Neto, A., Lima, I. R. P., Lopes, F., Lopera, C., Zimpel, R., Sinedino, L. D. P., Jeong, K. C., Galvão, K., Thatcher, W. W., Nelson, C. D., & Santos, J. E. P. (2017). Use of calcitriol to maintain postpartum blood calcium and improve immune function in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 100(7), 5805–5823.

Vlizlo, V. V. (2012). Laboratorni metody doslidzhen u biolohiyi, tvarynnytstvi ta veterynarniy medytsyni [Laboratory methods of research in biology, stock-breeding and veterinary medicine]. Spolom, Lviv (in Ukrainian).

How to Cite
Gutyj, B., Grymak, Y., Drach, M., Bilyk, O., Matsjuk, O., Magrelo, N., Zmiya, M., & Katsaraba, O. (2017). The impact of endogenous intoxication on biochemical indicators of blood of pregnant cows. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(3), 438-443.