Endemic course of epidemic diarrhea of pigs in the stabilized focus of infection

  • D. M. Masiuk Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University
  • O. I. Sosnitsky Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University
  • V. S. Nedzvetsky Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, Oles Honchar Dnipro National University
  • A. V. Kokarev Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University
  • S. G. Koliada Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University
Keywords: PED, PEDV, genome-equivalent, PCR-RT, ELISA


Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has been circulating in Ukraine since 2014 and induces an especially dangerous viral infection with a lethal diarrheal syndrome in newborn piglets, with the initial appearance at the focus of infection. The number of infected cases and lethality among diseased piglets of 1–5 days of age can reach 100%, which together with the forced anti-epizootic measures brings significant economic losses. PED can spread to all pigs, but the emergent quality of infectious pathology appears in newborn piglets. No effective and biologically safe means of specific antiviral prophylaxis, which substantially halts the epizootic process is registered, and etiopathogenetic therapy is not developed, therefore PED is an emergent infection which is difficult to control. Over time there appear stationary foci of infection, where evolutionary changes in relationships in the host-parasite system take place fairly rapidly, since pigs are prolific and fast maturing animals able to replace each generation up to three times each year. This leads to a significant variability in interpopulation relationships and the induction of biodiversity in the molecular mechanisms of adaptation and processing of the viral genome. Clinically, genetic modifications of local variants of PEDV – populations are manifested in the form of changes in epizootic peculiarities in the course of infectious pathology in different age groups of animals. Modifications of PEDV may be accompanied by a slight weakening of the intensity of the infectious process, a decrease in mortality and a decrease in the severity of the pathogenesis of diarrheal syndrome. At the same time, the age range of severe abdominal lesions expands from newborn piglets to fattening animals of older age groups of 28, 32, 70 days. Using a set of measures to combat the PED, including “reverse feeding” recycled infected biomaterial from convalescent pigs, eradication of the pathogen from the environment of the host macroorganisms through a total disinfection regime and strict compliance with veterinary and sanitary rules of animal husbandry provide temporary positive results, but in theory this approach is incorrect, since contamination of animals leads to the dispersal of the virus and the formation of endemic foci of infection. The persistence of the virus in convalescent organisms is not fixed, the external inanimate environment can only be a mechanical factor in transmission of the pathogen preserving the viability of PEDV over time. Stabilization of the epizootic foci of infection is possible due to three factors: a) dissemination of the virus in “reverse feeding”; b) preservation of the virus in the external environment as a result of poor-quality disinfection; c) occurrence of a non-immune element among the convalescent young gilts, who as a result of juvenile insufficiency of the immune system have a low titer accumulation of colostral antibodies to the virus received in the biomaterial through reverse feeding. Due to the lack of “lactogenic immunity”, neonatal pigs as biological indicators for the presence of PEDV in the environment begin reproducing the virus in the enterocytes and develop a typical diarrheal syndrome PED. 


Annamalai, T., Saif, L. J., Lu, Z., & Jung, K. (2015). Age-dependent variation in innate immune responses to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection in suc kling versus weaned pigs. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 168(3), 193–202.

Arriba, M. L., Carvajal, A., Pozo, J., & Rubio, P. (2002). Isotype-specific antibody-secreting cells in systemic and mucosal associated lymphoid tissues and antibody responses in serum of conventional pigs inoculated with PEDV. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 84(1), 1–16.

Arriba, M. L., Carvajal, A., Pozo, J., & Rubio, P. (2002). Lymphoproliferative responses and protection in conventional piglets inoculated orally with virulent or attenuated porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus. Journal of Virological Methods, 105(1), 37–47.

Bjustrom-Kraft, J., Woodard, K., Giménez-Lirola, L., Rotolo, M., Wang, C., Sun, Y., Lasley, P., Zhang, J., Baum, D., Gauger, P., & Zimmerman, J. (2016). Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) detection and antibody response in commercial growing pigs. BMC Veterinary Research, 12, 99–107.

Carvajal, A., Argüello, H., Martínez-Lobo, F. J.,Costillas, S., Miranda, R., de Nova, P. J. G., & Rubio, P. (2015). Porcine epidemic diarrhoea: New insights into an old disease. Porcine Health Management, 1(12), 1–8.

Chang, S. H., Bae, J. L., Kang, T. J., Kim, J., Chung, G. H., Lim, C. W., Laude, H., Yang, M. S., & Jang, Y. S. (2002). Identification of the epitope region capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies against the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus. Journal of Molecules and Cells, 14(2), 295–299.

Choudhury, B., Dastjerdi, A., Doyle, N., Frossard, J. P., & Steinbach, F. (2016). From the field to the lab – An european view on the global spread of PEDV. Virus Research, 226, 40–49.

Clement, T., Singrey, A., Lawson, S., Okda, F., Nelson, J., Diel, D., Nelson, E. A., & Christopher-Hennings, J. (2016). Measurement of neutralizing antibodies against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in sow serum, colostrum, and milk samples and in piglet serum samples after feedback. Journal of Swine Health and Production, 24(3), 147–153.

Dastjerdi, A., Carr, J., Ellis, R. J., Steinbach, F., & Williamson, S. (2015). Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus among farmed pigs, Ukraine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(12), 2235–2237.

Diel, D. G., Lawson, S., Okda, F., Singrey, A., Clement, T., Fernandes, M. H. V., Christopher-Hennings, J., & Nelson, E. A. (2016). Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus: An overview of current virological and serological diagnostic methods. Virus Research, 226(2), 60–70.

Di-Qiu, L., Jun-Wei, G., Xin-Yuan, Q., Yan-Ping, J., Song-Mei, L., & Yi-Jing, L. (2012). High-level mucosal and systemic immune responses induced by oral administration with Lactobacillus-expressed porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) S1 region combined with Lactobacillus-expressed N protein. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 93(6), 2437–2446.

Gerber, P. F., & Opriessnig, T. (2015). Detection of immunoglobulin (Ig) A antibodies against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in fecal and serum samples. MethodsX, 2, 368–373.

Gerber, P. F., Gong, Q., Huang, Y. W., Wang, C., Holtkamp, D. & Opriessnig, T. (2014). Detection of antibodies against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in se rum and colostrum by indirect ELISA. The Veterinary Journal, 202(1), 33–36.

Goede, D., & Morrison, R. B. (2016). Production impact and time to stability in sow herds infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 123(1), 202–207.

Goede, D., Murtaugh, M. P., Nerem, J., Yeske, P., Rossow, K., & Morrison, R. (2015). Previous infection of sows with a “mild” strain of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus confers protection against infection with a “severe” strain. Veterinary Microbiology, 176(1), 161–164.

Hou, X.-L., Yu, L. Y., Liu, J., & Wang, G. H. (2007). Surface-displayed porcine epidemic diarrhea viral (PEDV) antigens on lactic acid bacteria. Journal of Vaccine, 26(1), 24–31.

Jung, K., Annamalai, T., Lu, Z., & Saif, L. J. (2015). Comparative pathogenesis of US porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strain PC21A in conventional 9-day-old nursing piglets vs. 26-day-old weaned pigs. Veterinary Microbiology, 178(1), 31–40.

Khatri, M. (2015). Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus replication in duck intestinal cell line. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 549–550.

Kim, O., & Chae, C. (2003). Experimental infection of piglets with a korean strain of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 129(1), 55–60.

Knuchel, M., Ackermann, M., Müller, H. K., & Kihm, U. (1992). An ELISA for detection of antibodies against porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) based on the specific solubility of the viral surface glycoprotein. Veterinary Microbiology, 32(2), 117–134.

Koh, H. W., Kim, M. S., Lee, J. S., Kim, H., & Park, S. J. (2015). Changes in the swine gut microbiota in response to porcine epidemic diarrhea infection. Microbes and Environments, 30(3), 284–287.

Kweon, C. H., Kwon, B. J., Kang, Y. B., & An, S. H. (1994). Cell adaptation of KPEDV-9 and serological survey on porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) infection in Korea. Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, 34(2), 321–326.

Langel, S. N., Paim, F. C., Lager, K. M., Vlasova, A. N., & Saif, L. J. (2016). Lactogenic immunity and vaccines for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV): Historical and current concepts. Virus Research, 226, 93–107.

Li, B. X., Ge, J. W., & Li, Y. J. (2007). Porcine aminopeptidase N is a functional receptor for the PEDV coronavirus. Journal of Virology, 365(1), 166–172.

Li, W., Kuppeveld, F. J. M., He, Q., Rottier, P. J. M., & Bosch, B. J. (2016). Cellular entry of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus. Journal of Virus Research, 226, 117–127.

Li, Z.-L., Zhu, L., Ma, J.-Y., Zhou, Q.-F., Song, Y.-H., Sun, B.-L., Chen, R.-A., Xie, Q.-M., & Bee, Y.-Z. (2012). Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) field strains in south China. Virus Genes, 45, 181–185.

Lin, C. M., Annamalai, T., Liu, X., Gao, X., Lu, Z., El-Tholoth, M., Hu, H., Saif, L. J., & Wang, Q. (2015). Experimental infection of a US spike-insertion deletion porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in conventional nursing piglets and cross-protection to the original US PEDV infection. Veterinary Research, 46, 134–147.

Martelli, P., Lavazza, A., Nigrelli, A. D., Merialdi, G., Alborali, L. G., & Pensaert, M. B. (2008). Epidemic of diarrhoea caused by porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus in Italy. Veterinary Record, 162(10), 307.

Masiuk, D., Sosnitskiy, A., Kokarev, A., & Koliada, S. (2017). Experimental infection of pigs porcine epidemic diarrhea virus. Scientific Messenger LNUVMBT named after S. Z. Gzhytskyj, 19(77), 208–213.

Poonsuk, K., Zhang, J., Chen, Q., Gonzalez, W., Correa da Silva Carrion, L., Sun, Y., Ji, J., Wang, C., Main, R., & Zimmerman, J. (2016). Quantifying the effect of lactogenic antibody on porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection in neonatal piglets. Veterinary Microbiology, 197, 83–92.

Puranaveja, S., Poolperm, P., Lertwatchharasarakul, P., Kesdaengsakonwut, S., Boonsoongnem, A., Urairong, K., Kitikoon, P., Choojai, P., Kedkovid, R., Teankum, K., & Thanawongnuwech, R. (2009). Chinese-like strain of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15, 1112–1115.

Quist-Rybachuk, G. V., Nauwynck, H. J., & Kalmar, I. D. (2015). Sensitivity of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) to pH and heat treatment in the presence or absence of porcine plasma. Veterinary Microbiology, 181(3), 283–288.

Song, D. S., Oh, J. S., Kang, B. K., Yang, J. S., Song, J. Y., Moon, H. J., Kim, T. Y., Yoo, H. S., Jang, Y. S., & Park, B. K. (2005). Fecal shedding of a highly cell-culture-adaptrd porcine epidemic diarrhea virus after oral inoculation in pigs. Journal of Swine Health and Production, 13(5), 269–272.

Srijangwad, A., Stott, C. J., Temeeyasen, G., Senasuthum, R., Chongcharoen, W., Tantituvanont, A., & Nilubol, D. (2017). Immune response of gilts to single and double infection with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus. Archives of Virology, 162, 2029–2034.

Stevenson, G. W., Hoang, H., Schwartz, K. J., Burrough, E. R., Sun, D., Madson, D., Cooper, V. L., Pillatzki, A., Gauger, P., Schmitt, B. J., Koster, L. G., Killian, M. L., & Yoon, K. J. (2013). Emergence of Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in the United States: Clinical signs, lesions and viral genomic sequences. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 25, 649–654.

Strizhakova, O. M. (2013). Vydelenie i identifikacija virusa epizooticheskoj diarei cvinej pri vspyshke v krupnom svinovodcheskom hoziajstve [Isolation and identification of epizootic diarrhea virus in pigs under outbreak at a large farm]. Sel’skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya, 4, 65–69 (in Russian).

Suo, S., Ren, Y., Li, G., Zarlenga, D., Bu, R., Su, D., Li, X., Li, P., Meng, F., & Wang, C. (2012). Immune responses induced by DNA vaccines bearing Spike gene of PEDV combined with porcine IL-18. Virus Research, 167(2), 259–266.

Tun, H. M., Cai, Z., & Khafipour, E. (2016). Monitoring survivability and infectivity of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDv) in the infected on-farm Earthen Manure Storages (EMS). Frontiers in Microbiology, 7, 265–276.

Vlasova, A. N., Marthaler, D., Wang, Q., Culhane, M. R., Rossow, K. D., Rovira, A., Collins, J., & Saif, L. J. (2014). Distinct characteristics and complex evolution of PEDV strains, North America, May 2013 – February 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(10), 1620–1628.

Wang, L., Byrum, B., & Zhang, Y. (2014). New variant of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 917–919.

Yu, L., Zhao, Z., Hou, X., Cao, H., & Wang, G. (2008). Study on the surface displayed Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Viral (PEDV) S1 on lactic acid bacteria. Journal of Heilongjiang August First Land Reclamation University, 4, 45–47.

Zhang, X., Pan, Y., Wang, D., Tian, X., Song, Y., & Cao, Y. (2015). Identification and pathogenicity of a variant porcine epidemic diarrhea virus field strain with reduced virulence. Virology Journal, 12, 88–93.

How to Cite
Masiuk, D. M., Sosnitsky, O. I., Nedzvetsky, V. S., Kokarev, A. V., & Koliada, S. G. (2017). Endemic course of epidemic diarrhea of pigs in the stabilized focus of infection. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(3), 410-416. https://doi.org/10.15421/021763