The features of vegetative regulation of the heart rate in athletes with different levels of perception and processing of visual information
AbstractThe study involved 32 children aged from 11-12 who were receiving training in sports schools in Sumy .The children were divided into three study groups with high, medium and low levels of sensorimotor reactivity, defined in terms of complex visual-motor response. The study methods were psychophysiological, cardiointervalography, mathematical and statistical. We found that the majority of individuals with a medium level of sensorimotor reactivity possessed vegetative tonus, characterized by background emphotony, while sympathicotonia was prevalent in the group of athletes with a high level of sensorimotor reactivity, in comparison with those with medium and low levels of sensorimotor reactivity. Vegetative imbalance that manifests via hypersympaticotonic reactivity occurred among athletes with high and medium levels of sensorimotor reactivity, which is the evidence of stress on the cardiovascular system, decline of adaptive capacity of the organism in the individuals investigated. Shorter latent periods of complex visual-motor responses (LP SR 1–3 and LP SR 2–3) were observed among athletes with hypersympaticotonic vegetative reactivity, compared to sportsmen with normal type of vegetative reactivity (P < 0.05). Analysis of indicators of heart rate variability revealed an increased activity of the sympathoadrenal system in athletes with a high level of sensorymotor response, which is confirmed by significantly lower values of SDNN and RMSSD in comparison with athletes with a low level of sensorymotor response. The activation of central regulation in athletes with a high level of sensorimotor responses also show significantly higher values IN and Amo, in comparison with athletes with a low level of sensorymotor response. The figures IN (47.7%), and Amo (45.3%) were those most effected by the level of sensorimotor reactivity. Less effected were figures of SDNN (43.1%), which reflects general heart rate variability and RMSSD (43.1%), which reflects high frequency components of heart rate. Analysis of change in dynamics of figures of heart rate variability provides evidence of higher activity of the sympathoadrenal system in athletes with a high level of sensorimotor reactivity, which facilitates increased stress on heart rhythm vegetative regulation mechanisms, accompanied by decline of parasympathetic influences of the vegetative nervous system.
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