Experimental study of tropism of cultivated canine parvovirus in the immunogenesis organs of puppies
AbstractThe immune system unites the organs and the tissues that protect the organism against genetically alien cells or substances entering the organism from the environment. Canine parvovirus is an etiologic agent of hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and causes a significant problem for veterinary medicine due to high level of morbidity and mortality, mostly among dogs, because of fast progression without immune-complement response. In this study, based on the results of our clinical, virological, histological, histochemical and morphological assays, we determined the pathogenetic role of parvovirus in sick dogs experimentally infected per os, specifically with isolated canine parvovirus (Antaeus) with titer of infectious activity equaling 3.80 ± 0.008 lg TCID50/cm, cultivated on heterological cell cultures. This allowed us to clarify, add to and generalize the data on the pathogenesis of the disease and determine pathohistological and histochemical changes in the immunogenesis, since the studied virus expresses immune-suppressive properties, leading to ruination of the locomotor ability of the organism and fast lethal outcome. The study of pathomorphological changes was carried out using pathoanatomical and histologic methods. Pathoanatomical material from the autopsy of puppies aged 45 days was fixed in 10% aqueous solution of neutral formaline and embedded in paraffin. Having parvoviral infection, dogs experience pathomorphologic changes in immune-complement organs, indicating inhibition of the immunogenesis function during an infectious disease of viral etiology. In the immunogenesis organs of puppies with the experimental reconstruction of parvoviral enteritis, we microscopically determined the following: edema of the cortex and medulla, disorganization of thymic corpuscules, and impairment of processes of differentiation of lymphocytes in the cortex and medulla of the thymic lobules; edema and large areas of accumulation of hemosiderin in the spleen as a result of breakdown of large amount of erythrocytes; acute inflammatory hyperemia of the parenchyma, swelling of sinuses, serous and serous-hemorrhagic lymphadenitis in lymph nodes. The complex of histologic changes in the immune protection organs, which we found in the conditions of experimental reconstruction of parvoviral infection, can be considered a distinct criterion for pathomorphologic differentiation diagnostics of parvoviral enteritis in dogs.
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