Content and location of lymphocyte subpopulations with markers CD4+, CD8+ and CD20+ in the esophageal tonsil of chickens and the Meckel diverticulum of ducks
AbstractImmune formations of birds' digestive organs, including the esophageal tonsil and Meckel’s diverticulum, protect the body from foreign antigens that enter the body with food and water and play an important role in maintaining the genetic constancy of its internal environment. This unique property of the immune system is formed during ontogenesis and is associated with maintaining the selection of lymphocyte clones that are able to respond to foreign antigens and carry out a specific immune response of two types: humoral and cellular. This article presents the results of a study of T- and B-lymphocyte subpopulations of the esophageal tonsil of Shever 579 cross chickens at the age of 25, 180 and 300 days, the Meckel diverticulum of the Blagovarsky cross ducks at the age of 30, 150 and 180 days. Immunohistochemical and statistical research methods were used to determine the localization and quantitative parameters of cell populations of lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+, CD20+) using monoclonal antibodies and the DAKO EnVision FLEX+ imaging system (Dako Cytomation, Denmark). Separate subpopulations of T-lymphocytes (CD4+ - helpers, CD8+ -cytotoxic / T-suppressors) and mature B-lymphocytes (CD20+) were found in the esophageal tonsil and Meckel diverticulum of birds. Their presence confirms that antigen-independent proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes into effector cells occur in the immune formations of the digestive system. The lymphoid tissue of these formations is represented mainly by a well-defined diffuse form and nodules with light centers (secondary). In the esophageal tonsil of chickens, these structures are located in the tunica mucosa and tela submucosa, and in the Meckel diverticulum of ducks – also in the tunica muscularis. The content of lymphocytes with these markers predominates in diffuse lymphoid tissue compared to that in secondary lymphoid nodules. In the diffuse lymphoid tissue of the esophageal tonsil, lymphocytes are located mainly near the adenomeres and excretory ducts of the esophageal glands, blood vessels, and under the surface epithelium, and in Meckel’s diverticulum – around the crypts, in their epithelium and in the epithelium of the villi. They are also found in the light centers of lymphoid nodules and on their periphery. The indices of the content of lymphocytes with the indicated markers in the esophageal tonsil and Meckel diverticulum which we determined were associated with age characteristics of the poultry in the postnatal period of ontogenesis. According to our observations, the content of CD20+ lymphocytes was the highest, while the populations of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes were much smaller. This indicates an increase in the activity and predominance of the humoral immunity over the cellular one. The content of CD20+ lymphocytes was highest in birds at the age of 180 days, that is, during their sexual maturity. The data presented in the work can be used by morphologists researching the organs of the immune system, immunologists, poultry specialists involved in breeding, using and raising poultry and in educational work.
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