Dynamics of morphological, immunological and histological changes in microsporіа in guinea pigs
AbstractMicrosporіа affect different species of animals and humans. The high contagiousness of the pathogen determines the relevance of research into this disease. Microsporum canis is the pathogen that most often causes microsporia. Weakened functions of the immune system and violation of the epithelial barrier of the skin are a favourable factor that causes microspores. The main source of infection is cats, which are involved in the storage and transmission of the pathogen. To clarify the dynamics of morphological, immunological and histological changes in microsporia, blood and skin studies of guinea pigs infected with M. canis were carried out. The animals were divided into two groups of 6 guinea pigs (healthy and sick). Test material (blood and skin) was taken from clinically healthy and sick animals 21 and 42 days after infection. The number of erythrocytes and leukocytes was determined by counting them in the Goryaev chamber, the hemoglobin content – by the method of cyanide hemoglobin. The leukogram was derived based on the counting and differentiation of 200 leukocyte cells in blood smears. Material for histological examination (pieces of skin) was fixed in 10–12% cooled solution of neutral formalin, followed by pouring in paraffin according to the scheme proposed by G. A. Merkulov. The obtained results demonstrated that leukocytosis developed in guinea pigs with microsporia on the 21st and 42nd days; the number of rod-shaped neutrophils increased, that of segmental neutrophils decreased, and that of ESR increased. The immune response to the course of microsporia was manifested in an increase in the percentage of T-lymphocytes, T-suppressors and a decrease in T-helper cells and an increase in T-killers compared with healthy animals. Histological examination showed that on the 21st day after infection, hyphae and spores of the fungus M. canis were localized in the skin. There is swelling of the dermis, stratification of collagen fibers and the accumulation of inflammatory infiltrates around the hair follicles. On the 42nd day, the infiltration spread and dystrophic changes in the skin occurred in the form of desquamation of the epidermis and the formation of acanthosis and hyperkeratosis on the surface of the dermis. The conducted research will allow further assessment of the course of microsporia under the action of various drugs and help establish the most effective method of treatment.
Ascioglu, S., Rex, J. H., de Pauw, B., Bennett, J. E., Bille, J., Crokaert, F., Denning, D. W., Donnelly, J. P., Edwards, J. E., Erjavec, Z., Fiere, D., Lortholary, O., Maertens, J., Meis, J. F., Patterson, T. F., Ritter, J., Selleslag, D., Shah, P. M., Stevens, D. A., & Walsh, T. J. (2002). Defining opportunistic invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients with cancer and hematopoietic stem cell transplants: An international consensus. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 34(1), 7–14.
Barlov, Y. (1994). T lymphocytes and immunosuppression in the burned patient: A review. Burns, 20(6), 487–490.
Bezlushhenko, O. V. (2017). Mikrosporija u koshek [Microsporia in cats]. Mir Veterinarii, 5, 26–28 (in Russian).
Budumjan, T. M., & Panova, E. O. (2003). Etiologija i lechenije zooantropoznoj mikrosporii [Etiology and treatment of zooanthroponous microsporia]. Rossijskij Zhurnal Kozhnyh i Venericheskih Boleznej, 6, 33–35 (in Russian).
Carlotti, D. N. (1997). Canine and feline superficial fungal skin infections. Veterinary Quarterly, 19(1), 45–46.
Cavalcanti, J. N., Guerra, J. L., Gambale, W., Corrêa, B., & Paula, C. R. (2002). Histopathologic and mycologic aspects of experimental infection of guinea pigs with Microsporum canis. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, 39(5), 238–243.
de Hoog, G. S., Guarro, J., Gene, J., & Figueras, M. J. (2000). Atlas of clinical fungi. 2nd edition. Universitet Rovire I Virgili, Reus.
DeBoer, D. J. (2003). Effects of lufenuron treatment in cats on the establishment and course of Microsporum canis infection following exposure to infected cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 222(9), 1216–1220.
El-Dessouky, Y. M. M., El-Dessouky, M. M., & El-Batrawy, O. A. (2019). Penicillamine as radiation protector against gamma radiation effect on complete blood count parameters of guinea pigs. Al-Azhar Assiut Medical Journal, 17(2), 145–153.
Haitov, R. M. (2000). Fiziologija immunnoj sistemy [Physiology of the immune system]. Rosijskij Fiziologicheskij Zhurnal imeni I. M. Sechenova, 86(3), 252–267 (in Russian).
Horalskyi, L. P., Khomych, V. T., & Kononskyi, O. I. (2005). Osnovy histolohichnoji tekhniky i morfofunktsionalni metody doslidzhen’ u normi ta pry patolohiji [Fundamentals of histological technique and morphofunctional research methods in normal and pathology]. Polissia, Zhytomyr (in Ukrainian).
Joyner, A. L. (1938). A study of the white blood cells of the normal guinea pig. American Journal of Anatomy, 62(4), 497–450.
Kisera, Y., Martyniv, Y., & Klishch, I. (2020). Pathomorphological changes in the skin of the guinea pigs in the course of microspores. EUREKA: Health Sciences, 26, 76–84.
Medvedeva, E. A., Medvedev, J. A., Teregulova, G. A., & Fahretdinova, H. S. (2002). Sovremennye problemy izuchenija zooantroponoznyh dermatomikozov [Modern problems of studying zooanthroponous dermatomycosis]. Problemy Medicinskoj Mikologii, 4(2), 89–95 (in Russian).
Merkulov, G. A. (1969). Kurs patologogistologicheskoj tehniki [Course of pathologic-histological technique]. Medicina, Lvov (in Russian).
Moriello, K. A., Coyner, K., Paterson, S., & Mignon, B. (2017). Diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats. Clinical Consensus Guidelines of the World Association for Veterinary Dermatology. Veterinary Dermatology, 28(3), 266–268.
Novoselov, V. S., & Novoselov, A. V. (2004). Novye aspekty v probleme vybora sovremennogo antimikotika [New aspects in the problem of choosing a modern antimycotic]. Russkij Medicinskij Zhurnal, 12(18), 47–51 (in Russian).
Pasquetti, M., Min, A. R. M., Scacchetti, S., Dogliero, A., & Peano, A. (2017). Infection by Microsporum canis in paediatric patients: A veterinary perspective. Veterinary Sciences, 4(3), 46.
Pototskyi, M. K. (2000). Dermatomikozy [Dermatomycoses]. Veterynarna Medytsyna Ukrainy, 11, 20 (in Ukrainian).
Smith, E. B. A. (1947). Certain characteristics of the leukocytes of guinea pig blood with particular reference to the kurloff body. Blood, 2(1), 125–141.
Subelj, M., Marinko, J. S., & Učakar, V. (2014). An outbreak of Microsporum canis in two elementary schools in a rural area around the capital city of Slovenia, 2012. Epidemiology and Infection, 142(12), 2662–2666.
Vlislo, V. V. (2012). Laboratorni metody doslidzhen u biolohii, tvarynnytstvi ta veterynarniy medytsyni [Laboratory methods of research in biology, animal husbandry and veterinary medicine]. Spolom, Lviv (in Ukrainian).
Yakobysiak, M. (2004). Imunolohiia [Immunology]. Nova Knyha, Vinnytsia (in Ukrainian).
Zimmerman, K., Moore, D. M., & Smith, S. A. (2015). Hematological assessment in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus): Blood sample collection and blood cell identification. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice, 18(1), 33–40.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons «Attribution» 4.0 License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.