Application of enzyme probiotic drug developed based on microorganisms of the rumen of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in feeding cows
AbstractIn the current conditions of intense technologies of milk production, the feeding of dairy cows is aimed at providing fast rates of growth and maximum productivity over a short period. However, such systems of diets often have negative effects on the health of the animals as a result of metabolism malfunctioning. The present study was conducted to assess the influence of the enzyme probiotic preparation Rumit, developed based on cellulolytic bacteria isolated from the rumen of reindeer, on dairy activity, food intake, density of ciliate fauna of the rumen, feeding activity, and also metabolic profile and the level of natural resistance of newly-calved heifers. To conduct the experiment, we composed two groups (control and experimental) of first-calf heifers with 12 individuals in their first 100 days of lactation after calving. The first-calf heifers of the experimental group, in addition to the main diet, received the preparation in the amount of 50 g per individual daily in the lunch time feeding for 90 days. Inclusion of the probiotic increased the dairy productivity, particularly a 3.1 kg increase in the average yield of daily 4%-fat milk, 9.6 kg in the butterfat output, and 7.7 kg in that of dairy protein. With increase in dairy productivity, a 0.09 EFU (energy fodder units, equals 10 MJ) decrease was observed in energy expenditure for 1 kg of milk. Intake of the probiotic led to increase in the index of nutritional activity by 0.03 units and increase in the density of ciliates by 155, 900 individuals/mL. Use of the biopreparation had a positive effect on the metabolic processes in the organism of heifers. The animals of the experimental group were observed to have an increase in the content of the total protein in the blood, 12.5% decrease in the urea, and glucose concentration reached the normative values. In the first-calf heifers that had received the food supplement in addition to their diet, the physiological parameters of health normalized and the protective abilities of the organism activated, the pulse and respiration frequencies increased (by 3.8% and 6.6%), the phagocytic index grew by 30.2%, and the absorptive ability of neutrophils increased by 40%. Thus, enzyme probiotic preparation Rumit confirmed its efficiency when fed to newly-calved heifers.
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