Genetic analysis of morphological traits of the spike and reproductivity elements of speltoid chemomutant Triticum aestivum
AbstractLong use of the methods of direct intraspecies hybridization in the selective breeding of varieties of Triticum aestivum L. has led to narrowing of their gene fund and close similarity of the genetic potential of their selective breeding traits. Using the method of experimental mutagenesis, one can induce systemic mutants with features of other hexaploid Triticum species which can freely cross-breed with other hybridization offspring, contributing to extension of genetic potential of cultivated wheat and creation of varieties with new levels of manifestation of economically beneficial traits. We studied the pattern of inheritance of morphological traits of the ear, length of the stem and the elements of productivity of speltoid chemomutant of T. aestivum. For the genetic analysis we used hybrids F1 and F2 of soft wheat obtained by cross-breeding speltoid macromutant (Smuhlianka speltoid), induced by the impact of aqueous solution of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) in the concentration of 0.025% on the seeds of Smuhlianka variety, with plants of Smuhlianka variety (Erythrospermum variety) and Podoloanka (Lutescens variety). To determine the pattern of inheritance the spike morphology, length of the stem and the elements of productivity in F1 hybrids, we calculated the extent of phenotype domination. In populations of F2, we examined plants with different combinations of phenotype manifestation of ear morphology. In F1 hybrids, the speltoid shape of the ear, absence of awns and red colour of the glumes indicated the dominant pattern of inheritance. The high level of phenotype domination of length of the stem and ear, number of spikelets in the main ear indicates the inheritance of the features according to intermediate, partly dominant and over-dominant types. Taking into account the segregation according to the features of spike morphology, awnedness and colour of glumes, the plants of F2 population were divided into phenotype classes, that is 12 and 6 in the combinations of respectively Smuhlianka speltoid × Smuhlianka and Smuhlianka speltoid × Podolianka. We determined that the obtained results are the consequences of dihybrid linkage which corresponds to the theoretical proportion of 12 : 3 : 1. Segregation into non-aristate and aristate plants corresponds to the proportion of monogene segregation of 3 : 1. Within separately distinguished phenotype classes, no independent inheritance of the shape of the ear and awnedness was observed. Dihybrid segregation of F2 plants into speltoid, squarehead and varieties Lutescence/Erythrospermum with quantitative superiority of speltoid plants suggests the control of the trait by two non-allele genes with epistatic interaction. The red colour of the glumes indicates the dominant monogenic pattern of inheritance. Absence of independent inheritance of the shape of the ear and awnedness indicates localization of genes which determine these features in one chromosome.
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