Assessment of ecological stability in yield for breeding of spring barley cultivars with increased adaptive potential
AbstractIncreasing crop adaptability in terms of ensuring a stable level of productivity in the genotype – environment interaction is still the central problem of plant breeding theory and practice. The aim of the present study is to theoretically substantiate and practically test a scheme of multi-environment trials, as well as interpret experimental data using modern statistical tools for evaluation of the genotype by environment interaction, and highlight the best genotypes with combining yield performance and ecological stability at the final stage of the spring barley breeding process. For this purpose in the first year of competitive testing (2016) at the V. M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine we selected nine promising spring barley breeding lines. In 2017 and 2018 these breeding lines were additionally tested in two other scientific institutions located in different agroclimatic zones of Ukraine. For a more reliable assessment, the breeding lines were compared not only with standard cultivar, but also with ten spring barley cultivars widespread in agricultural production of Ukraine. Thus, for three years of competitive testing, we received experimental genotype-environmental data from seven environments, which represent a combination of contrasting agroclimatic zones (Central part of the Forest-Steppe, Polissia and Northern Steppe of Ukraine) and different years (2016–2018). Our results revealed significant variability of mean yield of genotypes, as well as cross-over genotype by environment interaction. The first two principal components of both AMMI and GGE biplot explained more than 80% of the genotype by environment interaction. In general, the peculiarities we revealed indicate the effectiveness of the proposed combination of spatial (agroclimatic zones) and temporal (years) gradients to identify the best spring barley genotypes with the optimal combination of yield performance and ecological stability. Using AMMI and GGE biplot models was effective for the comprehensive differentiation of genotypes in terms of wide and specific adaptability, as well as for qualitative characterization of test environments and providing mega-environment analysis. As a practical result of the multi-environment trial, four spring barley breeding lines have been submitted to the State Variety Testing of Ukraine as new cultivars MIP Sharm, MIP Tytul, MIP Deviz and MIP Zakhysnyk, respectively.
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