The effect of pre-sowing seed treatment on seedlings growth rate and their excretory activity
AbstractThe importance of studying pre-sowing seed treatment lies in the possibility of regulating the rate of seed germination, the intensity of their growth and obtaining root exudates in biotechnology. The effect of three pre-sowing treatment methods was examined (control – washing with running water; the first method – washing with 0.05% sodium permanganate solution; the second method – 30 seconds in 70% ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) and 30 minutes in 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); the third method – 5 minutes in 70% C2H5OH and 40 minutes in 5% NaOCl) on the growth rate, germination rate, excretion rate of seeds of wheat and peas and composition (of protein, carbohydrate, amino acid content) of root exudates from the first to the third day of growth in order to obtain root exudates. It was revealed that the same pre-sowing treatment of wheat and pea seeds has a different effect on the rate and variability of seedling growth from the first to the third day, as well as on the qualitative and quantitative composition of root exudates. It was shown that pre-sowing treatment of wheat and pea seeds for 5 minutes with 70% ethanol followed by treatment with sodium hypochlorite (a “hard” treatment method) accelerates seedling growth and seed germination. This method of treatment reduces the intensity of excretion of root exudates and composition in wheat, but it increases the intensity of excretion in peas. The discovered effects can be explained by hormesis. Additionally, the third method of pre-sowing seed treatment can be used in root technologies for obtaining root exudates.
Ashapkin, V., Kutueva, L., Aleksandrushkina, N., & Vanyushin, B. (2019). Epigenetic regulation of plant gametophyte development. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20, 3051.
Azeez, Z. A., Bozhkov, A. I., Mahmood, M. T., & Kovalova, M. K. (2019). The species composition of epiphytic microorganisms and their influence on roots excretory activity of wheat and pea seedlings. Biochemical and Cellular Archives, 19(2), 3809–3818.
Azeez, Z., Kovalova, M., & Bozhkov, A. (2018). Effects of pre-sowing seed treatment on the growth rate of seedlings and the activity of the excretory system of the wheat root in aquatic culture. International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Biotechnology, 11(3), 573–583.
Belz, R. G., Cedergreen, N., & Duke, S. O. (2011). Herbicide hormesis – can it be useful in crop production? Weed Research, 51, 321–332.
Bozhkov, A. I., Menzyanova, N. G., & Leontovich, V. P. (1996). Lipid composition and antibacterial activity of root exometabolites of wheat seedlings. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 43(6), 920–925.
Calabrese, E. (2008). Hormesis: Why it is important to toxicology and toxicologists. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 27(7), 1451–1474.
Calabrese, E. J., & Baldwin, L. A. (1999). Chemical hormesis: Its historical foundations as a biological hypothesis. Toxicologic Pathology, 27(2), 195–216.
Canarini, A., Kaiser, C., Merchant, A., Richter, A., & Wanek, W. (2019). Root exudation of primary metabolites: Mechanisms and their roles in plant responses to environmental stimuli. Frontiers in Plant Science, 10, 157.
Dattilo, S., Mancuso, C., Koverech, G., Di Mauro, P., Ontario, M. L., Petralia, C. C., Petralia, A., Maiolino, L., Serra, A., Calabrese, E. J., & Calabrese, V. (2015). Heat shock proteins and hormesis in the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Immun Ageing, 12, 20.
Dupont, F. M., & Altenbach, S. B. (2003). Molecular and biochemical impacts of environmental factors on wheat grain development and protein synthesis. Journal of Cereal Science, 38(2), 133–146.
Farooq, N., Abbas, T., Tanveer, A., Javaid, M., Ali, H., Safdar, M., Khan, A., Zohaib, A., & Shahzad, B. (2019). Differential hormetic response of fenoxaprop-p-ethyl resistant and susceptible phalaris minor populations: A potential factor in resistance evolution. Planta Daninha, 37, e019187554.
Flores, F. J., & Garzon, C. D. (2013). Detection and assessment of chemical hormesis on the radial growth in vitro of oomycetes and fungal plant pathogens. Dose-Response, 11(3), 361–373.
Hastings, A., Hom, C. L., Ellner, S., Turchin, P., & Godfray, H. C. (1993). Chaos in ecology: Is mother nature a strange attractor? Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 24, 1–33.
Kossmann, J. (2012). Grand challenges in plant biotechnology. Frontiers in Plant Science, 3, 61.
Król, P., Adamska, J., & Kępczyńska, E. (2014). Enhancement of Festuca rubra L. germination and seedling growth by seed treatment with pathogenic Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 36, 3263–3274.
Kuzin, A. M. (1993). The key mechanisms of radiation hormesis. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Seriya Biologicheskaya, 6, 824–832.
Kuznetsova, Y., Bozhkov, A., Menzyanova, N., Goltvyansky, A., & Azeez, Z. (2019). Root exudates of wheat seedling express antibacterial and antioxidant activity and stimulate proliferation of liver cells. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 9(4), 303–310.
Lechowska, K., Kubala, S., Wojtyla, L., Nowaczyk, G., Quinet, M., Lutts, S., & Garnczarska, M. (2019). New insight on water status in germinating Brassica napus seeds in relation to priming-improved germination. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20(3), 540.
Li, X., Zhang, T., Wang, X., Hua, K., Zhao, L., & Han, Z. (2013). The composition of root exudates from two different resistant peanut cultivars and their effects on the growth of soil-borne pathogen. International Journal Biological Sciences, 9(2), 164–173.
Lowry, O. H., Rosebrough, N. J., Farr, A. L., & Randall, B. J. (1951). Protein mesurement with folin phenol reagent. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 193(1), 265–275.
Majeed, A., Abbasi, M., Hameed, S., Imran, A., & Rahim, N. (2015). Isolation and characterization of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from wheat rhizosphere and their effect on plant growth promotion. Frontiers in Microbiology, 6, 198.
Mann, H. B., & Whitney, D. R. (1947). On a test of whether one of two random variables is stochastically larger than the other. The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 18, 50–60.
Masuko, T., Minami, A., Iwasaki, N., Majima, T., Nishimura, S. I., & Lee, Y. C. (2005). Carbohydrate analysis by a phenol-sulfuric acid method in microplate format. Analytical Biochemistry, 339, 69–72.
Mosekilde, E., Aracil, J., & Allen, P. M. (1988). Instabilities and chaos in nonlinear dynamic systems. System Dynamics Review, 4, 14–55.
Nweke, C., & Ogbonna, C. (2017). Statistical models for biphasic dose-response relationships (hormesis) in toxicological studies. Ecotoxicology Environmental Contamination, 12(1), 39–55.
Shen, B., Wang, L., Lin, X., Yao, Z., Xu, H., Zhu, G., Teng, H., Cui, L., Liu, E., Zhang, J., He, Z., & Peng, X. (2019). Engineering a new chloroplastic photorespiratory bypass to increase photosynthetic efficiency and productivity in rice. Molecular Plant, 12, 199–214.
Tharmalingam, S., Sreetharan, S., Kulesza, A. V., Boreham, D. R., & Tai, T. C. (2017). Low-dose ionizing radiation exposure, oxidative stress and epigenetic programing of health and disease. Radiation Research, 188, 525–538.
Wolny, E., Betekhtin, A., Rojek, M., Braszewska-Zalewska, A., Lusinska, J., & Hasterok, R. (2018). Germination and the early stages of seedling development in Brachypodium distachyon. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19(10), 2916.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons «Attribution» 4.0 License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.