The thyroid status of a conditionally healthy adult population of Prydniprovia
AbstractPathologies of the thyroid gland are one of the most common diseases in endocrinology today. Hormones of the thyroid gland carry out hormonal regulation of the cell cycle, the physiological and post-traumatic repair of cells. The hormones of the thyroid gland secrete and enhance the oxidative processes and control the heat production, which can affect the mental state and the ability of the body to adapt to adverse environmental factors. In the case of a lack or almost complete absence of thyroid hormones, normal development and function of any functional system in the body is not possible. In the context of an increase in the incidence of thyroid gland pathology inUkraine, this article presents an analysis of the thyroid status of the conditionally healthy population of Prydniprovia, related to age and gender. For the study, 120 patients of both sexes aged between 20 to 70 were selected. All patients were divided into 3 age groups of 40 people. Each age group was divided into 2 subgroups – male and female, with 20 people in each subgroup. Patients who, in the past and during the experiment, had no cases of thyroid gland disease were selected for accurate and reliable results. The study of thyroid status of the population showed that most of the adult and healthy population of Prydniprovia was not severely affected. All indicators were included in the age and gender limits of the norm, which are established by the preanalytical requirements of the independent laboratory Invitro (Dnipro,Ukraine). In women aged 50–70 years, there is an increased risk of hypothyroidism, which is confirmed by low levels of free thyroxine and triiodothyronine in the blood against the background of increased thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroglobulin levels. In the adult, conditionally healthy population of the Dnipro region aged between 20–70 years, the following correlation relations were observed between thyroid stimulating and thyroid hormones: at a younger age for men, the relationship between TSH and fT4 was –0.97, for TSH and fT3 –0.96, women also had a negative interdependence between these hormones (–0.95 and -0.98 respectively). The age of the men who underwent the test did not change this dependence but in women after 50 years, the Pearson correlation coefficient decreased between the studied hormones TTG and fT4 and fТ3 to –0.94 and –0.93, respectively. Indicators of total thyroxine and total triiodothyronine in the blood serum are not indicative for determining the risk of hypothyroidism.
Aoyama, M., Takizawa, H., Tsuboi, M., Nakagawa, Y., & Tangoku, A. (2017). A case of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma complicated with Graves’ disease after total thyroidectomy. Endocrine Journal, 17, 1–5.
Bähler, S., Müller, W., Linder, T., Frotzler, A., Fischli, S., Aqtashi, B., Elmas, F., & Nader, A. (2017). Intraoperative parathyroid hormone measurement is the best predictor of postoperative symptomatic hypocalcemia. HNO, 65(9), 1–7.
Bernal, J., & Morte, B. (2013). Thyroid hormone receptor activity in the absence of ligand: Physiological and developmental implications. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1830(7), 3893–3899.
Brenowitz, W. D., Han, F., Kukull, W. A., & Nelson, P. T. (2017). Treated hypothyroidism is associated with cerebrovascular disease but not Alzheimer’s disease pathology in older adults. Neurobiology of Aging, 3(62), 64–71.
Cho, M., Han, S., Kim, H., Kim, K. S., & Hahn, S. K. (2017). Hyaluronate-parathyroid hormone peptide conjugate for transdermal treatment of osteoporosis. Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition, 28(19), 1–21.
Cooper, D. S., & Laurberg, P. (2013). Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, 1(3), 238–249.
Goemann, I. M., Romitti, M., Meyer, E. L. S., Wajner, S. M., & Maia, A. L. (2017). Role of thyroid hormones in the neoplastic process: An overview. Endocrine Related Cancer, 24(11), 367–385.
Gothié, J. D., Sébillot, A., Luongo, C., Legendre, M., Nguyen, V. C., LeBlay, K., Perret-Jeanneret, M., Remaud, S., & Demeneix, B. A. (2017). Adult neural stem cell fate is determined by thyroid hormone activation of mitochondrial metabolism. Molecular Metabolism, 6(11), 1551–1561.
Horodynskа, О. Y., & Bobyriova, L. Y. (2016). Prohnostychna kharakterystyka poshyrenosti hipotyreozu v Poltavsʹkiy oblasti ta v Ukrayini v tsilomu za umovy odnoho defitsytu. [Рrognostic characteristics of hypothyroidism prevalence in the Poltava region and in Ukraine under conditions of iodine deficiency]. Mezdunarodnyj Endocrynologychesky Jurnal, 74, 44–49.
Kimura, Y., Hayashida, N., Takahashi, J., Rafalsky, R., Saiko, A., Gutevich, A., Chorniy, S., Kudo, T., & Takamura, N. (2016). Evaluation of thyroid antibodies and benign disease prevalence among young adults exposed to 131I more than 25 years after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. PeerJ, 4, 1–12.
Lin, H. C., Liou, M. J., Hsu, H. L., Hsieh, J. C., Chen, Y. A., Tseng, C. P., & Lin, J. D. (2016). Combined analysis of circulating epithelial cells and serum thyroglobulin for distinguishing disease status of the patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Oncotarget, 7(13), 17242–17253.
Marwali, E. M., Boom, C. E., Sakidjan, I., Santoso, A., Fakhri, D., Kartini, A., Kekalih, A., Schwartz, S. M., & Haas, N. A. (2013). Oral triiodothyronine normalizes triiodothyronine levels after surgery for pediatric congenital heart disease. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, 14(7), 701–708.
Nilsson, M., & Fagman, H. (2017). Development of the thyroid gland. Development, 144(12), 2123–2140.
Peters, K. O., Tronko, M., Hatch, M., Oliynyk, V., Terekhova, G., Pfeiffer, R. M., Shpak, V. M., McConnell, R. J., Drozdovitch, V., Little, M. P., Zablotska, L. B., Mabuchi, K., Brenner, A. V., & Cahoon, E. K. (2017). Factors associated with serum thyroglobulinin a Ukrainian cohort exposed to iodine-131 from the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant. Environmental Research. 156, 801–809.
Poddar, M., Chetty, Y., & Chetty, V. T. (2017). How does obesity affect the endocrine system? A narrative review. Clinical Obesity, 7(3), 136–144.
Selmansberger, M., Braselmann, H., Hess, J., Bogdanova, T., Abend, M., Tronko, M., Brenner, A., Zitzelsberger, H., & Unger, K. (2015). Genomic copy number analysis of Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinoma in the Ukrainian – American Cohort. Carcinogenesis, 36(11), 1381–1387.
Shin, J. A., Mo, E., Kim, E. S., Moon, S. D., & Han, F. H. (2014). Association between lower normal free thyroxine concentrations and obesity phenotype in healthy euthyroid subjects. International Journal of Endocrinology, 104318, 1–8.
Shpakov, A. O. (2017). Farmakologicheskiye podkhody dlya korrektsii disfunktsiy shchitovidnoy zhelezy v usloviyakh sakharnogo diabeta [Pharmacological approaches for correction of thyroid dysfunctionsin diabet esmellitus]. Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡, 63(3), 219–231 (in Russian).
Tognini, S., Pasqualetti, G., Calsolaro, V., Polini, A., & Monzani, F. (2014). Cognitive function and quality of life in mild thyroid hormone deficiency. Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery, 8(2), 124–134.
Valenciaga, A., Grubbs., E. G., Porter, K., Wakely, P. E. Jr., Williams, M. D., Cote, G. J., Vasko, V. V., Saji, M., & Ringel, M. D. (2017). Reduced retinoblastoma protein expression is associated with decreased patient survival in medullary thyroid cancer. Thyroid, 27.
Verburg, F. A., Reiners, C., Grelle, I., Barth, H., Fassnacht, M., & Luster, M. (2013). Calcium stimulate dcalcitonin measurement: A procedural proposal. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes. 121(5), 318–320.
Zheng, F. M., & Sheila, A. S. (2014). Thyroglobulin as a biomarker of iodine deficiency. Thyroid, 24(8), 1195–1209.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons «Attribution» 4.0 License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.