Relationships of oxidative stress and systemic inflammation markers depending on the degree and duration of hypertension

  • T. Ashcheulova Kharkiv National Medical University
  • N. Gerasimchuk Kharkiv National Medical University
Keywords: 8-isoprostane, C-reactive protein, superoxide anion, blood pressure


Arterial hypertension (AH) is a heterogenic and multisystem disease. It has been suggested that oxidative stress (OS) and systemic non-specific inflammation may be involved in pathogenesis of cardiovascular pathology including AH. The aim of our study was to characterize the plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) level as a marker of systemic inflammation in relation to OS development (on the base of 8-isoprostane level assessment), depending on duration and degree of AH. We examined 117 persons, of which 102 patients from 30 to 65 years old (average age – 54.7 years) who had previously not been receiving regular antihypertensive therapy had I–III degrees of essential hypertension and 15 healthy persons (average age – 48.7 years). In 34 patients from this group the degree of OS activity was determined by 8-isoprostane level as the main marker of OS. The control group consisted of 10 healthy persons, by age and gender comparable with the study group. Determination of plasmatic CRP levels and the level of 8-isoprostane in the serum was performed by ELISA. The study established an increase of the plasmatic CRP levels in patients with hypertension, and a statistically significant increase of serum 8-isoprostane content in hypertensive patients compared to the control group. When assessing the relationship of 8-isoprostane and CRP content in patients with different degrees of hypertension we found that the strongest positive relationship between their levels was observed in the case of I degree hypertension. This may indicate the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of hypertension as a damaging mechanism which contributes to the activation of immune mechanisms and further progression of the disease. Increased CRP and 8-isoprostane levels confirm the involvement of autoimmune mechanisms and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The level of C-reactive protein is dependent on the duration of hypertension, while the 8-isoprostane levels – only on degree of hypertension. A raised level of C-reactive protein can be used as an independent marker of systemic inflammation in patients with arterial hypertension.


Allison, S.J., 2016. Hypertension: Oxidative stress and immune activation in hypertension. Nat. Rev. Nephrol. 12, 4.

Ashсheulova, T.V., Zaika, M.V., Gerasimchuk, N.N., 2007. Vzaimosvjaz' immunnoj aktivacii i oksidativnogo stressa pri progressirovanii arterial'noj gipertenzii [Relationships between immune activation and oxidative stress in arterial hypertension progression]. Ukr. Terapevt. Zh. 2, 12–15 (in Russian).

Bautista, L., Veram, L., Arenas, I., Gamarra, G., 2005. Independent association between inflammatory markers (C-reac¬tive protein, interleukin 6 and TNF-alpha) and essential hypertension. Journal of Human Hypertension 19, 149–154.

Cracowski, J.L., Stanke-Labesque, F., Bessard, G., 2000. Isoprostanes: New markets of oxidative stress. Fundamental and clinical aspects. Rev. Med. Int. 21, 304–307.

Czerska, M., Zieliński, M., Gromadzińska, J., 2016. Isoprostanes – A novel major group of oxidative stress markers. Int. J. Occup. Med. Env. Health 29(2), 179–190.

Davi, G., Alessandrini, P., Mezzetti, A., Minotti, G., Bucciarelli, T., Costantini, F., Cipollone, G., Bon, B., Ciabattoni, G., Patrono, C., 1997. In vivo formation of 8-epi-PGF2 is increased in hypercholesterolemia. Arterioscler. Tromb. Vasc. Biol. 17, 3230–3235.

Davi, G., Ciabattoni, G., Consoli, A., Mezzetti, A., Falco, A., Santarone, S., Pennese, E., Vitacolonna, E., Bucciarelli, T., Costantini, F., Capani, F., Patrono, C., 1999. In vivo formation of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2 and platelet activation in diabetes mellitus: Effects of improved metabolic control and vitamin E supplementation. Circulation 99, 224–229.

Dmitriev, V.A., Oshhepkova, E.V., Titov, V.N., 2006. S-reak-tivnyj belok i arterial'naja gipertonija: Sushhestvuet li svjaz'? [C-reactive protein and arterial hypertension: Are they related?]. Terapevticheskij Arhiv 78(5), 86–89 (in Russian).

Greco, A., Mingetti, L., Levi, G., 2000. Isoprostanes, novel markers of oxidative injury, help understanding the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Neurochem. Res. 25, 1357–1364.

Hamilton, C.A., Brosnan, M.J., Mc Intyre, M., Graham, D., Dominiczak, A.F., 2001. Superoxide excess in hypertension and aging: A common cause of endothelial dysfunction. J. Hypertens. 37, 529–534.

Hoffman, A., Baltimore D., 2006. Circuitry of nuclear factor kappa B signaling. Immunol. Rev. 210, 171–186.

Kim, K.I., Lee, J.H., Chang, H.J., 2008. Association between blood pressure variability and inflammatory marker in hypertensive patients. Circ. J. 72(2), 293–298.

Kovaljova, O.N., Ashсheulova, T.V., Gerasimchuk, N.N., 2015. Vzaimosvjaz' immunnoj aktivacii i oksidativnogo stressa u bol'nyh gipertonicheskoj bolezn'ju i ih korrekcija kombinirovannoj antigipertenzivnoj terapiej [Relationship of immune activation and oxidative stress in patients with hypertension and their correction combined antihypertensive therapy]. Nauchnye Vedomosti 213, 52–59 (in Russian).

Kovaljova, O.N., Ashсheulova, T.V., Gerasimchuk, N.N., Safargalina-Kornilova, N.A., 2015. Rol' oksidativnogo stressa v stanovlenii i progressirovanii gipertonicheskoj bolezni [Role of oxidative stress in the formation and progression of hypertensive disease]. Nauchnye Vedomosti 201, 5–11 (in Russian).

Kovaljova, O.N., Belovol, A.N., Zaika, M.V., 2005. Rol' oksidativnogo stressa v kardiovaskuljarnoj patologii [Role of an oxidative stress in cardiovascular pathology]. Zhurn. AMN Ukrajiny 11(4), 660–670 (in Russian).

Koval'ova, O.N., Gerasymchuk, N.M., Safargalina-Kornilova, N.A., Smyrnova, V.I., Potabenko, S.V., 2011. Riven' 8-izo-prostanu ta aktyvnist' antyoksydantnyh fermentiv u hvoryh na gipertonichnu hvorobu [Levels of 8-izoprostane and antioxidant enzyme activity in patients with arterial hypertension]. Problemy Ekologii' ta Medycyny 15(3–4), 13–16 (in Ukrainian).

Lawson, J.A., Rokach, J., Fitz Gerald, G.A., 1999. Isoprostanes: formation, analysis and use as indices of lipid peroxidation in vivo. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 24441–24444.

Liu, Q., Han, L., Du, Q., Zhang, M., Zhou, S., Shen, X., 2016. The association between oxidative stress, activator protein-1, inflammatory, total antioxidant status and artery stiffness and the efficacy of olmesartan in elderly patients with mild-to-moderate essentialhypertension. Clin. Exp. Hypertens. 38, 365–369.

Morrow, J.D., Frei, B., Longmire, A.W., Gaziano, M.J., Lynch, S. M., Yu Shyr, Strauss, W.E., John, A., Oates, L., Jackson, D., 1995. Increase in circulating products of lipid peroxidation (F2-isoprostanes) in smokers. Smoking as cause of oxidative damage. N. Engl. J. Med. 332, 1198–1203.

Sung, K., Suh, J., Kim, B., 2003. High sensitivity C-reactive protein as an independent risk factor for essential hypertension. Am. J. Hypertens. 16, 429–433.

Tosu, A.R., Demir, S., Selcuk, M., Kaya, Y., Akyol, A., Ozdemir, M., Tenekecioglu, E., 2014. Comparison of inflammatory markers in non-dipper hypertension vs. Dipper hypertension and in normotensive individuals: Uric acid, C-reactive protein and red blood cell distribution width readings. Advances in Interventional Cardiology / Postep. Kardiol. Inter. 36, 98–103.

Tzortzis, J.D., Sivik, D.A., Chang, D.L., 1997. Chronic oxidative stress induces a hypertrophic phenotype and apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Circulation 96, 149–153.

Wu, J., Kirabo, A., Hana, A., 2015. Immune activation caused by vascular oxidation promotes fibrosis and hypertension. J. Clin. Invest. 126(1), 50–67.

How to Cite
Ashcheulova, T., & Gerasimchuk, N. (2016). Relationships of oxidative stress and systemic inflammation markers depending on the degree and duration of hypertension. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 7(2), 118–122.