Effectiveness of enterosgel usage in the conditions of simultaneous destruction of rats by karbofos and carbon tetrachloride


  • L. А. Boyko SHEI "I.Y. Horbachevsky Ternopil State Medical University of the Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine"
  • L. S. Fira SHEI "I.Y. Horbachevsky Ternopil State Medical University of the Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine"
  • P. G. Lychatskiy SHEI "I.Y. Horbachevsky Ternopil State Medical University of the Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine"
Keywords: average weight molecules, aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, acetylcholinesterase

Abstract

The aim of our study was to examine the effectiveness of the enterosgel sorbent in the terms of simultaneous destruction of rats by karbofos and carbon tetrachloride. Experiments were carried out on white rats weighing 175–200 g, which were kept on a standard diet. Karbofos was administered intragastrically on daily basis in the aqueous solution at the rate of 20 mg/kg of the body weight, which is 1/10 of the LD50. Carbon tetrachloride was administered intraperitoneally, twice a day in the form of a 50% oil solution at a dose of 1.0 ml/kg of animal. Animals received enterosgel daily by intragastric way at the rate of 120 mg/kg of body weight. The activity of free radical processes in rats was assessed by thiobarbituric acid content – active products (TBA-AP) in serum, liver and heart homogenates. Level of endogenous intoxication was determined by the content of average weight molecules (AWM) in serum and liver homogenate. The degree of cytolysis of hepatocytes was assessed by the activity of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase (AlAT, AsAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum, liver and heart homogenates. The degree of damage of the nervous system was studied by the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in serum and liver homogenate. Content of TBA-AP in serum, liver and myocardium increased throughout the period of study. Reduction of TBA-AP was observed in studied tissues after applying of enterosgel sorbent in the affected body. After the defeat by toxicants we showed significant increase of fraction of AM1 (chain aminoacids dominate) and AM2 (aromatic aminoacids dominate) in serum and liver of experimental rats throughout the experiment. Enterosgel showed a positive effect on this index, reducing the content of MSM molecules. Due to toxic effects of endogenous and exogenous toxins in cells degradation and changing the permeability of plasma membranes of hepatocytes was observed as evidenced by the increased activity of both AlAT and AsAT in serum and decreased in liver and myocardium. Throughout the experiment a positive effect of enterosgel on these indices was observed, which activity decreased in serum and increased in liver and myocardium. Another marker of hepatic cytolysis is alkaline phosphatase, which activity increase in serum shows the development of inflammation in the liver. It is noted that after enterosgel introduction into the body affected by xenobiotics ALP activity decreases. The main pathogenetic mechanism of karbofos action is based on the inhibition of AChE – an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetylcholine and plays an important role in synaptic transmission of nerve impulses. Throughout the experiment, under the action of toxicants, decreasing of the AChE activity took place, and when injecting into the affected body enterosgel we observed increased activity of the enzyme. Thus, the usage of enterosgel resulted in the depressing process of free radical oxidation, reduction of endogenous intoxication and decrease in the inflammation in the rats affected by xenobiotics, allowing to carry out subsequent studies of the efficiency of this sorbent under conditions of chemical poisoning.

References

Bondarev, E.V., Shtrygol, S.Y., Dyryavyu, S.B., 2008. Primenenie enterosorbentov v meditsinskoy praktike [Use of enterosorbents in medical practice]. Provizor [Pharmacist] 13–14, 39–43 (in Russian).
Gubskiy, Y.I., Levitsky, Y.L., Zadorin, O.V., Yanitska, L.V., Afanasenko, O.V., 2005. Biochemical and molecular mechanisms of chemical cell death by destruction highly toxic xenobiotics. Bukov. Med. Herald. 9(2), 76–77.
Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals: Eighth edition, 2011. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
Kind, J., 1954. Determination of the activity of alkaline phosphatase. J. Clin. Path. 7(4), 322–326.
Kolb, V.G., Kamyshnikov, V.S., 1982. Spravochnik po klinicheskoy himii [Handbook of clinical chemistry]. Belarus, Minsk (in Russian).
Lapach, S.N., Chubenko, A.V., Babich, P.N., 2000. Statisticheskie metody v medikobiologicheskih issledovaniyah s ispolzovaniem Ехсеl [Statistical methods in medical-biological researches with using of Excel]. Morion, Kiev (in Russian).
Lushchak, V.І., Bahnyukova, T.V., Lushchak, A.V., 2004. Indicators of oxidative stress. Thiobarbituric products and protein carbonyl groups. Ukr. Biochem. J. 26, 136–141 (in Ukrainian).
Nikolaichik, V.V., Kirkovski, V.V., Main, V.M., 1989. "Middle molecules" – education and methods of the determination. Lab. Delo 8, 31–33.
Reitman, S., Frankel, S., 1957. Definition of biochemical indicators of the toxicity of liver. Amer. J. Clin. Path. 28(1), 56–60.
Rybolovlev, Y.R., 1979. Dosing agents for mammalian by the constants of biological activity. Reports of AN USSR 247(6), 1513–1516.
Voronko, Е.А., 2004. Acute poisoning with organophosphorous compounds. Medicine 4, 26–29.
Walewsky, S.F., Shinkarenko, N.D., Dubovsky, N.G., Borisov, I.S., 2003. To diagnose of neuropathies caused by the toxic exposure to organophosphorus compounds having a remote neurotoxicity. Modern Problems of Toxicology 2, 77–79.
Yermolayeva, E.E., Goncharov, N.V., Radilov, A.S., 2008. Esterase activity, platelet hemostasis, neuromuscular conduction and morphological changes in the modeling of chronic oral toxicity substance type Vx. Toxicol. News 3, 2–8.
Zhmіnko, P.G., Loboda, Y.I., 2003. Toxicity and anticholinergic effect of some organophosphorus pesticides according to their sorption on serum proteins. Modern Problems of Toxicology 1, 18–21.
Published
2014-10-28
How to Cite
Boyko, L., Fira, L., & Lychatskiy, P. (2014). Effectiveness of enterosgel usage in the conditions of simultaneous destruction of rats by karbofos and carbon tetrachloride. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 5(2), 125-130. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15421/021424