Мonitoring of viruses spread among domestic cats and dogs in Dnipropetrovsk

  • L. V. Yashchuk Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University, Dnipropetrovsk
  • N. V. Cherevach Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University, Dnipropetrovsk
  • A. I. Vinnikov Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University, Dnipropetrovsk
Keywords: antigens, antibodies, IFA, IChra, calicivirus infection, rhinotracheitis, enteritis, hepatitis


Cats and dogs kept at home, as well as other animals, are susceptible to infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms, including viruses. Viral infections in urban environments are extremely common and cause severe diseases in domestic animals which often lead to death, resulting in high material and moral damages to owners of animals. Therefore, investigation of the prevalence of pathogens of viral diseases is very important in our time. The aim of this work is to define the indicators of spreading viral diseases of animals in Dnipropetrovsk, to analyze the seasonal spread of viral infections in animals, and influence of sex and breed on the frequency of disease manifestations. Materials for research were obtained on the basis of three veterinary clinics in Dnipropetrovsk. During the study, we used serological methods of diagnostics of clinical materials, namely ELISA and IHA. Immunosorbent assay was performed using the thermostatic shaker ST-3 and strip immunoassay analyzer Stat Fax 303 Plus. Also we used commercial test systems VetExpert CAV Ag and Feline VacciCheck ImmunoComb®, based on the immuno-chromatographic method. During clinical studies of 491 animals (268 cats and 223 dogs) it was found that the most common respiratory viral infections in cats were calicivirus infection and rhinotracheitis, while in dogs there were viral diseases of gastrointestinal tract, i.e. enteritis and hepatitis. Using IHA method, we revealed the antibodies to respiratory viruses in the blood of deseased cats: to calicivirus – in 95 cats, to rhinotracheitis – in 60 cats; by ELISA method we identified antigens of parvovirus, enteritis pathogen, in biological material of 61 dogs, by IHA we found antibodies to virus of infectious hepatitis in 49 individuals. Based on these data, it has been revealed that during the winter months the animals suffered mostly the respiratory viral infections (60%), and in spring there were increased occur-rence of enteritis, observed in all age groups of animals. From May, hepatitis started to appear and prevailed for all summer months, mixed with enteritis (about 50% of total number of cases). Hepatitis was recorded both in cats and dogs. By the fall, recurrence was observed for calicivirus and herpes virus infections in cats, and the cases of enteritis decreased, while hepatitis was recorded until mid-October. Such statistics is kept relatively constant. The research results can be applied in the practice of veterinary laboratories for the development of diagnostic measures and prevention of viral diseases in domestic animals, as well as in the prediction of dissemination of viral infections in animals in the near future.


Bakulov, I.A., Kotljarov, V.M., Danchenko, A.S., 2002. Osobo opasnye bolezni zhivotnyh. Novosibirsk, Pokrov (in Russian).

Baryshnikov, P.I., 2006. Veterinarnaja virusologija [Veterinary virology]. AGAU, Barnaul (in Russian).

Bessarabov, B.F., Vashutin, A.A., Voronin, E.S., 2007. Infekcionnye bolezni zhivotnyh [Infectious animal diseases]. Kolos, Moscow (in Russian).

Bexfield, N.H., Buxton, R.J., Vicek, T.J., Day, M.J., Bailey, S.M., Haugland, S.P., Morrison, L.R., Else, R.W., Constantino-Casas, F., Watson, P.J., 2012. Breed, age and gender distribution of dogs with chronic hepatitis in the United Kingdom. Vet. J. 193(1), 124–128.

Boomkens, S.Y., Penning, L.C., Egberink, H.F., van den Ingh, T.S., Rothuizen, J., 2004. Hepatitis with special reference to dogs. A review on the pathogenesis and infectious etiologies, including unpublished results of recent own studies. Vet. Q. 26(3), 107–114.

Brice, R.S., Poulet, H., Pingret J.-L., Jas, D., Brunet, S., Lemeter, C., Etievant, M., Boucraut-Baralon, C., 2009. A nosocomial outbreak of feline calicivirus associated virulent systemic disease in France. J. Feline Med. Surg. 11(8), 633–644.

Bulut, O., Yapici, O., Avci, O., Simsek, A., Atli, K., Dik, I., Yavru, S., Hasircioglu, S., Kale, M., Mamak, N., 2013. The serological and virological investigation of canine adenovirus infection on the dogs. Sci.World J. (in Press).

Evermann, J.F., Abbott, J.R., Han, S., 2005. Canine coronavirus-associated puppy mortality without evidence of concurrent canine parvovirus infection. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 17(6), 610–614.

Fomina, N.V., 1995. Adenovirusnaja infekcija zhivotnyh [Adenoviral infection of animals]. Kolos, Moscow (in Russian).

Gaskell, R., Willoughby, K., 1999. Herpesviruses of carnivores. Vet. Microb. 69(1), 73–88.

Gosmanov, R.G., Kolychev, N.M., 2006.Veterinarnaja virusologija [Veterinary virology]. Kolos, Moscow (in Russian).

Hansman, G.S., Jiang, X.J., Green, K.Y., 2010. Caliciviruses: Molecular and cellular virology. Caister Academic Press, Poole.

Jeddi, D., Rjemsi, J.K., Tennant, B., 2005. Infekcionnye bolezni sobak i koshek [Infectious diseases of dogs and cats]. Akvarium-Print, Moscow (in Russian).

Jushhuk, N.D., Vengerov, J.J., 2003. Infekcionnye bolezni [Infectious diseases]. Medicina, Moscow (in Russian).

Karen, P., Coyne, D.S., Radford, A.D., Cripps, P.J., Porter, C.J., McCracken, C.M., Gaskell, R.M., 2006. Longterm analysis of feline calicivirus prevalence and viral shedding patterns in naturally infected colonies of domestic cats. Vеt. Microbiol. 118(1), 12–25.

Kate, H.F., Pesavento, P.A., Pedersen, N.C., Poland, A.M., Wilson, E., Foley, J.E., 2004. An outbreak of virulent systemic feline calicivirus disease. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 224(2), 241–249.

Knowles, J.O., MacArdle, F., Dawson, S., Carter, S.D., Gaskell, C.J., Gaskell, R.M., 1991. Studies on the role of feline calicivirus in chronic stomatitis in cats. Vet. Microbiol. 27(3), 205–219.

Kondrahin, I.P., Arhipov, A.V., Levchenko, I.P., 2004. Metody veterinarnoj klinicheskoj laboratornoj diagnostiki [Methods of veterinary clinical laboratory diagnostics]. Kolos, Moscow (in Russian).

McArdle, F., Dawson, S., Carter, M.J., Milton, I.D., Turner, P.C., Meanger, J., Bennett, M., Gaskell, R.M., 1996. Feline calicivirus strain differentiation using monoclonal antibody analysis in an enzyme-linked immuno-flow-assay. Vеt. Microbiol. 51(3), 197–206.

Mettenleiter, T.C., Sobrino, F., 2008. Animal viruses: Molecular biology. Caister Academic Press, Poole.

Meyer, A., Kershaw, O., Klopfleisch, R., 2011. Feline calicivirus-associated virulent systemic disease: Not necessarily a local epizootic problem. Vet. Rec. 168(22), 589.

Richter, M., Schudel, L., Tobler, K., Matheis, F., Vögtlin, A., Vanderplasschen, A., Costes, B., Spiess, B., Ackermann, M., 2009. Clinical, virological, and immunological parameters associated with superinfection of latently with FeHV-1 infected cats. Vеt. Microbiol. 138(3), 205–216.

Schmitz, S., Coenen, C., Matthias, K., Heinz-Jürgen, T., Neiger, R., 2009. Comparison of three rapid commercial canine parvovirus antigen detection tests with electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 21(3), 344–345.

Sjurin, V.N., Solov’ev, B.V., Fomina, N.V., 1998.Virusnye bolezni zhivotnyh [Viral diseases of animals]. VNITIBL, Moscow (in Russian).

Vasil’ev, M.F., Voronin, E.S., Dugin, G.A., 2004. Praktikum po klinicheskoj diagnostike boleznej zhivotnyh. Kolos, Moscow (in Russian).

Watson, PJ., 2004. Chronic hepatitis in dogs: A review of current understanding of the aetiology, progression, and treatment. Vet. J. 167(3), 228–241.

Willett, B.J., Jarrett, O., 1995. Feline immunology and immunodeficiency. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.

How to Cite
Yashchuk, L. V., Cherevach, N. V., & Vinnikov, A. I. (2014). Мonitoring of viruses spread among domestic cats and dogs in Dnipropetrovsk. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 5(1), 23-27. https://doi.org/10.15421/021405