Obesity: The role of desynchronosis and genetic factors in mechanisms of its development

  • M. O. Ryznychuk National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences
  • V. P. Pishak Bukovinian State Medical University
Keywords: melatonin circadian mechanisms, gene, epiphysis


The article highlights the role of desynchronosis and certain genetic factors in the development of obesity. Some pathogenetic links of obesity and the influence of melatonin on them are analyzed.Desynchronosis is one of the causes of obesity as a result of dysregulatory changes in the chronoperiodic system – between suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus and secretory activity of the pineal gland.In obesity there are some changes in circadian patterns of important physiological parameters. These include acrophases of blood pressure; rhythm of hormone secretion, including insulin; electrolytes; sleep-wake cycle displaced for a period of a day, which is a deviation from the normal course. Phase discrepancies of established circadian oscillations of physiological processes arise. Preconditions of fat metabolism imbalance, particularly visfatin, apelin and vaspin – components of atherosclerotic lesions, gradually emerge.There is abundant evidence for close relationships between metabolism and circadian mechanisms. It is proved, that there is a strong direct impact of endogenous circadian rhythms on the metabolic pathways that do not depend on food intake or sleep. A potential low molecular weight of biomarkers of human circadian phases has been identified. A number of key metabolic enzymes in tissues such as the liver, adipose tissue or the pancreas are chronodependent. Desynchronosis phenomena caused by genetic or environmental factors can lead to serious metabolic disorders, including obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome.Genesis of pineal removal-induced insulin resistance and reduced glucose tolerance in cells is related to the consequences of melatonin absence, which leads to abnormalities in insulin signaling pathways and reduced GLUT4 gene expression and protein content.Insulin-sensitive tissues (white and brown adipose tissue, skeletal and heart muscles) after pineal removal are characterized by a significant reduction of GLUT4 mRNA and the content of microsomal and membrane proteins, which are compensated during treatment by melatonin. Functional synergy exists between melatonin and insulin. Melatonin is able through the membrane receptors MT1 to cause rapid tyrosine phosphorylation, activate tyrosine kinase of beta subunits of insulin receptors and mobilize several intracellular stages of insulin-signaling pathway transduction.Thus, the protective effect of melatonin in cases of disturbance to the carbohydrate metabolism is manifested in the formation of circadian periodicity by modulating the expression of time genes.


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How to Cite
Ryznychuk, M. O., & Pishak, V. P. (2017). Obesity: The role of desynchronosis and genetic factors in mechanisms of its development. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(1), 23-29. https://doi.org/10.15421/021705