Short-term effect of adrenalin on S-100b and N-CAM level in the different rat brain areas

  • Y. P. Kovalchuk Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University
  • O. O. Dovban Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University
  • A. M. Kanga Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University
  • G. A. Ushakovа Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University
Keywords: adrenalin, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, S-100b protein, N-CAM


The level of adrenalin grows under stress conditions, sense of danger, anxiety, fear, trauma, burns and shock. In high concentrations adrenaline increases the speed of protein catabolism. Working through the circulatory system, adrenaline affects almost all the functions of organs, causing the body mobilization to counter stressful situations. Due to ELISA the astrocytes-specific protein (S-100b) and neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) were studied. S-100b is produced mainly by astrocytes іn the brain and depending on the concentration it causes trophic or toxic effect on the neurons and glial cells.Strong stress and ischemia induce re-distribution of calcium-binding protein S-100b and elevation of its level. Quantitative changes of S-100b under the influence of various factors on the body which lead to the metabolic disorder in the brain are considered today as a sign of brain damage (cortical, ischemic one, etc.). Fluctuations in the concentration of S-100b in the brain are not always accompanied by marked deterioration of the physical condition of animals, but they can also lead to a number of violations of integrative functions of the brain depending on over-production of this protein. Most N-CAM are transmembrane proteins that cross the plasma membraneonce; intracellular domains have different size and it is thought they are involved in binding to cytoskeleton or cell signaling. Violation of N-CAM functions leads to disruption of nerve sprouts. Data obtained in our study showed no serious re-distribution of S-100b and N-CAM level in the different areas of rat brain (cerebral cortex, hippocampus and thalamus) under effect of adrenalin administered to the animals (under skin) in dosage of 0.45–0.60 mg per rat, 1 time per day during 10 days, probably because of the type of injection and/or short time of adrenalin action. Increased dosage of adrenaline 1 hour before decapitation leads to the decrease of level of total protein in membrane fraction extracted from brain tissue without changing the level of S-100b and N-CAM. 


Beharier, O., 2012. S100B – a potential biomarker for early detection of neonatal brain damage following asphyxia. J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med. 25(9), 1523–1528. >> doi: 10.3109/14767058.2012.664200

Bianchi, R., Adami, C., Giambanco, I., Donato, R., 2007. S100B binding to RAGE in microglia stimulates COX-2 expression. J. Leukoc. Biol. 81(1), 108–118. >> doi: 10.1189/jlb.0306198

Bradford, M., 1985. Rapid and sensitive methods for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal. Biochem. 72, 248–254. >> doi: 10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3

Bottiger, B.W., Mobes, S., Glatzer, R., Bauer, H., Gries, A., Brtsch, P., Motsch, J., Martin, E., 2001. Astroglial protein S-100 is an early and sensitive marker of hypoxic brain damage and outcome after cardiac arrest in humans. Circulation 103, 2694–2698. >> doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.103.22.2694

Donato, R., Sorci, G., Riuzzi, F., Arcuri, C., Bianchi, R., Brozzi, F., Tubaro, C., Giambanco, I., 2009. S100B's double life: intracellular regulator and extracellular signal. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1793(6), 1008–1022. >> doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2008.11.009

Edelman, J.M., 2004. Expression of cell adhesion moleculesduring embryogenesis and regeneration. Exp. Cell Res. 161(1), 1–16.

Elting, J.W., De Jager, A.E.J., Teelken, A.W., Schaaf, M.J., Maurits, N.M., van der Naalt, J., Sibinga, C.T., Sulter, G.A., De Keyser, J., 2000. Comparison of serum S-100 protein levels following stroke and traumatic brain injury. J. Neurol. Sci. 181, 104–110. >> doi: 10.1016/S0022-510X(00)00442-1

Fomenko, O.Z., Ushakova, G.O., Piyerzhynovsky, S.G., 2011. Proteins of astroglia in the rat brain under experimental chronic hepatitis condition and 2-oxoglutarate effect. Ukr. Biochem. J. 83(1), 69–75.

Hu, J., 1997. S100 beta induces neuronal cell death through nitric oxide release from astrocytes. J. Neurochem. 69, 2294–2301.

Kochanek, P.M., Berger, R.P., Bayir, H., Wagner, A.K., Jenkins, L.W., Clark, R.S., 2008. Biomarkers of primary and evolving damage in traumatic and ischemic brain injury: Diagnosis, prognosis, probing mechanisms, and therapeutic decision making. Curr. Opin. Crit. Care 14(2), 135–141. >> doi: 10.1097/MCC.0b013e3282f57564

Krawczyk, A., Jaworska-Adamu, J., 2010. Synantocytes: The fifth type of glia? In comparison with astrocytes. Folia Histochem. Cyto. 48(2), 173–177. >> doi: 10.2478/v10042-010-0033-z

Lam, A.G., 2001. Mechanism of glial activation by S100B: Involvement of the transcription factor NFкB. Neurobiol. Aging 22, 765–772. >> doi: 10.1016/S0197-4580(01)00233-0

Lamers, K.J., Van Engelen, B.G., Gabreels, F.J., Hommes, O.R., Borm, G.F., Wevers, R.A., 1995. Cerebrospinal neuron-specific enolase, S-100 and myelin basic protein in neurological disorders. Acta Neurol. Scand. 92, 247–251. >> doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.1995.tb01696.x

Li, Y., 2000. S100в induction of the pro-inflammatorycytokine interleukin-6 in neurons. J. Neurochem. 74, 143–150.

Liu, L., 2005. S100B-induced microglial andneuronal IL-1 expression is mediated by cell type-specific transcription factors. J. Neurochem. 92, 546–553.

Sheng, L., Leshchyns'ka, I., Sytnyk, V., 2015. Neural cell adhesion molecule 2 promotes the formation of filopodia and neurite branching by inducing submembrane increases in Ca2+ levels. J. Neurosci. 35(4), 1739–1752. >> doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1714-14.2015

Sorci, G., Bianchi, R., Riuzzi, F., Tubaro, C., Arcuri, C., Giambanco, I., Donato, R., 2010. S100B protein, a damage-associated molecular pattern protein in the brain and heart, and beyond. Cardiovasc. Psychiatry Neurol. ID 656481, 1–13. >> doi: 10.1155/2010/656481

Sytnyk, V.N., Dityatev, A.E., Korogod, S.M., 2001. Distribution of cell adhesion molecules on the surface of branching neurites: Model-inherited effects of branch diametr and mode of transport. Neurophysiology 33(1), 15–19.

Wunderlich, M.T., Ebert, A.D., Kratz, T., Goertler, M., Jost, S., Herrmann, M., 1999. Early neurobehavioral outcome after stroke is related to release of neurobiochemical markers of brain damage. Stroke 30, 1190–1195. >> doi: 10.1161/01.STR.30.6.1190

How to Cite
Kovalchuk, Y. P., Dovban, O. O., Kanga, A. M., & UshakovаG. A. (2015). Short-term effect of adrenalin on S-100b and N-CAM level in the different rat brain areas. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 6(2), 119-124.