Pathohistological changes in the intestine, lungs and liver of sheep with spontaneous strongyloidiasis
AbstractSheep diseases of invasive and non-invasive etiology are among the restrictive factors for Ukrainian sheep-breeding. The helminthiases are among the most widespread parasitical diseases, and particularly strongyloidiasis causes significant losses for sheep farms in cases of severe course. Young sheep are the most susceptible, showing growth and developmental lag, and death occurs in cases of high invasiveness due to severe pathologies induced by the parasites. Thus the aim of the present work was to study the morphological and histological changes in the intestine, lungs and liver of sheep with strongyloidiasis. Results of pathoanatomy showed that under spontaneous sheep strongyloidiasis with the intensity of the invasion from 50 to 136 specimens of nematodes, the main pathological changes occur at Strongyloides localization sites: intestine and parenchymatous organs (lungs and liver). Particularly, the small intestine showed catarrhal desquamative enteritis. Morphological changes of its mucosa demonstrated necrosis of the apical part of the villi, desquamation of epithelium, constriction and decrease of intestinal crypts. At the same time, massive diffusive cell infiltrates were detected in the intestinal mucosa lamina propria with the prevalence of eosinophilic leukocytes, inflammatory thickening of villi cylindrical epithelium and its mucous metamorphosis, pyknosis and lysis of enterocyte nuclei. In the large intestine, necrosis of the mucosa was detected, with edema, effusion of serum-cell exudate in its canal, diffusive infiltration of lymphocytes, eosinophils and plasma cells in the intestinal mucosa lamina propria. Lung tissue demonstrated parasite larvae localized in canals of the bronchi and in alveoli. These sites had diffusive hemorrhages in lung parenchyma, signs of inflammation and thickening of interstitial tissue caused by damage to vessel walls due to migration of parasite larvae. Histological changes in the liver of sheep with strongyloidiasis showed the development of granular dystrophy and necrotic changes in hepatocytes.
Abebe, R., Gebreyohannes, M., Mekuria, S., Abunna, F., & Regassa, A. (2010). Gastrointestinal nematode infections in small ruminants under the traditional husbandry system during the dry season in Southern Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 42(6), 1111–1117.
Anteneh, W., & Yadav, K. R. (2017). A review sheep production system, yield, quality and preservation methods in Ethiopia. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 7(9), 243–254.
Asmare, K., Sheferaw, D., Aragaw, K., Abera, M., Sibhat, B., Haile, A., Kiara, H., Szonyi, B., Skjerve, E., & Wieland, B. (2016). Gastrointestinal nematode infection in small ruminants in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Tropica, 160, 68–77.
Balicka-Ramisz, A., Ramisz, G., & Zychlińska-Buczek, J. (2013). The annual population dynamics of gastrointestinal nematodes in breeding sheep of the Silesian Foothills, Southern Poland. Annals of Parasitology, 59(4),163–167.
Banerjee, R., Mandal, P. K., Bose, S., Banerjee, M., & Manna, B. (2009). Quality evaluation of meat, skin and wool from Garole sheep – a promising breed from India. Asian Journal of Animal Sciences, 3, 39–46.
Beknazarova, M., Whiley, H., & Ross, K. (2016). Advocating for both environmental and clinical approaches to control human strongyloidiasis. Pathogens, 5(4), 59.
Bonfoh, B., Zinsstag, J., Ankers, P., Pangui, L. J., & Pfister, K. (1995). Epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants in the plateau areas in Togo. Revue D'elevage et de Medecine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 48(4), 321–326.
Boyko, A. A., & Brygadyrenko, V. V. (2017). Changes in the viability of Strongyloides ransomi larvae (Nematoda, Rhabditida) under the influence of synthetic flavourings. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(1), 36–40.
Boyko, A., Brygadyrenko, V., Shendryk, L., & Loza, I. (2009). Estimation of the role of antropo-zoonosis invasion agents in the counteraction to bioterrorism. In: Counteraction to chemical and biological terrorism in East European countries. NATO science for peace and security series A: Chemistry and biology. Springer Nature. Pp. 309–315.
Boyko, O. O., & Brygadyrenko, V. V. (2019a). Nematocidial activity of aqueous solutions of plants of the families Cupressaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Cannabaceae and Apiaceae. Biosystems Diversity, 27(3), 227–232.
Boyko, O. O., & Brygadyrenko, V. V. (2019b). The impact of acids approved for use in foods on the vitality of Haemonchus contortus and Strongyloides papillosus (Nematoda) larvae. Helminthologia, 56(3), 202–210.
Boyko, O. O., Kabar, A. M., & Brygadyrenko, V. V. (2020). Nematicidal activity of aqueous tinctures of medicinal plants against larvae of the nematodes Strongyloides papillosus and Haemonchus contortus. Biosystems Diversity, 28(1), 119–123.
Dillard, K. J., Saari, S. A., & Anttila, M. (2007). Strongyloides stercoralis infection in a Finnish kennel. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 49, 37.
Dimitrijevic, B., Jović, S., Ostojić-Andrić, D., Savić, M., Beckei, Ž., Davidović, V., & Joksimović-Todorović, M. (2016). Infection with Strongyloides papillosus in sheep: Effect of parasitic infection and treatment with albendazole on basic haematological parameters. Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry, 32, 369–381.
Dugassa, J., Hussein, A., Kebede, A., & Mohammed, C. (2018). Prevalence and associated risk factors of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and goats in Ziway Dugda District, Eastern Arsi Zone of Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. ARC Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 4(2), 6–18.
Eisa, N. Z., Babiker, S. A., & Abdalla, H. S. (2017). Effect of natural gastrointestinal parasitic infection on fattening performance of Sudan desert sheep. Journal of Animal Sciences and Livestock Production, 1(1), 1–6.
Ericsson, C. D., Steffen, R., Siddiqui, A. A., & Berk, S. L. (2001). Diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 33(7), 1040–1047.
Giannetto, S. (2006). Biomorphology of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants. Parassitologia, 48(3), 391–395.
Kiceli, D. (1962). Prakticheckaja mikpotehnika i gictohimija [Practical microtechniques and histochemistry]. Hungary Scientific Academy Publishing, Budapesht (in Russian).
Kobayashi, I., Kajisa, M., Farid, A. S., Yamanaka, A., & Horii, Y. (2009). Paralytic ileus and subsequent death caused by enteric parasite, Strongyloides papillosus in Mongolian gerbils. Veterinary Parasitology, 162, 100–105.
Manfredi, M. T. (2006). Biology of gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants. Parasitologia, 48(3), 397–401.
Merkulov, G. A. (1969). Kurs patologicheskoj tekhniki [Course of pathohistological techniques]. Medicine, Moscow (in Russsian).
Nakanishi, N., Nakamura, Y., Ura, S., Tsuji, N., Taira, N., Tanimura, N., & Kubo, M. (1993). Sudden death of calves by experimental infection with Strongyloides papillosus. III. Hematological, biochemical and histological examinations. Veterinary Parasitology, 47, 67–76.
Nwaorgu, O. C., & Connan, R. M. (1980). The importance of arrested larvae in the maintenance of patent infections of Strongyloides papillosus in rabbits and sheep. Veterinary Parasitology, 7(4), 339–346.
Nwosu, C. O., Madu, P. P., & Richards, W. S. (2007). Prevalence and seasonal changes in the population of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants in the semi-arid zone of North-Eastern Nigeria. Veterinary Parasitology, 144, 118–124.
Pienaar, J. G., Basson, P. A., du Plessis, J. L., Collins, H. M., Naude, T. W., Boyazoglu, P. A., Boomker, J., Reyers, F., & Pienaar, W. L. (1999). Experimental studies with Strongyloides papillosus in goats. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 66, 191–235.
Romeis, B. V. (1954). Mykroskopycheskaia tekhnyka [Microscopic techniques]. Foreign Literature Publishing, Moscow (in Russian).
Taira, N. (1992). Sudden death of calves by experimental infection with Strongyloides papillosus. I. Parasitological observations. Veterinary Parasitology, 42, 247–256.
Tsuji, N., Itabisashi, T., Nakamura, Y., Taira, N., Kubo, M., Ura, S., & Genno, A. (1992). Sudden cardiac death in calves with experimental heavy infection of Strongyloides papillosus. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 54, 1137–1143.
Turner, J. (1959). Experimental strongyloidiasis in sheep and goats. II. Multiple infections: Development of acquired resistance. Journal of Parasitology, 45(1), 76–86.
Ura, S. (1993). Sudden death of calves by experimental infection with Strongyloides papillosus. IV. Electrocardiographic and pneumographic observations at critical moments of the disease. Veterinary Parasitology, 47, 343–347.
Ura, S., Nakamura, Y., Tsuji, N., & Taira, N. (1992). Sudden death of calves by experimental infection with Strongyloides papillosus. II. Clinical observations and analysis of critical moments of the disease recorded on videotape. Veterinary Parasitology, 44, 107–110.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons «Attribution» 4.0 License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.