Morphological and ecological peculiarities of checker tree mountain ash (Torminalis glaberrima) plants and biochemical composition of its fruits

  • Т. Z. Моskаlеts Institute of Horticulture of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine
  • А. H. Vоvkоhоn Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University
  • Y. М. Bаrаt Poltava State Agrarian Academy
  • О. V. Knyazyuk Vinnytsia Mykhailo Kotsiubynskyi State Pedagogical University
  • P. N. Verheles Vinnytsia National Agrarian University
Keywords: wild service tree; new genotypes; selection principles; evaluation system; vitality indices; genetic resources


The selection and comparative study of new forms of the Red Book species checker tree mountain ash (Torminalis glaberrima (Gand.) Sennikov & Kurtto) were conducted on the basis of generalizing the literary data and expeditionary research on the natural and local gene pool of the above-mentioned plant. Information was presented about the peculiarities of the selection and valuable forms of the checker tree concerning the indices of vitality and morphology in the Central, South-Western, and Western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. These forms appeared to be characterized by high vigour (over 30–40 cm), large size and mass of the fruits (1.7–2.4 g), their increased nutritional value, high ecological plasticity and ornamentality (crown shape, leaf colouration and shades during the growing season). Taking into consideration the ornamental characteristics, the selected forms are rather promising in landscape construction and phytodesign as complementary elements of oak-beech, oak-hornbeam and other species associations, as well as green corridors of the ecological network. This will contribute to the restoration and preservation of this rare species, thus facilitating restoration, spreading and conservation of this rare species, thereby increasing the stability of ecosystem components, squares, alleys, nature-conservation territories and enhancing the aesthetic qualities of the gardens when establishing harmonious landscape compositions. The fruits of T. glaberrima are characterized as raw material for processing and manufacturing of medicinal preparations and food products. The biochemical analysis of the checker tree mountain ash berries has shown that they are characterized by high content of a number of biologically active substances: polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, vitamin С. The wide use of the checker tree will enable the food and pharmaceutical markets to be supplied with medicinal and fruit raw material by its introduction into new cultivation conditions, namely: into industrial and ornamental horticulture, forestry. The new genotypes of T. glaberrima were selected and are planned to be transferred to the National Centre for the Plant Genetic Resources of Ukraine. That will make it possible to replenish the genetic bank of Ukraine with representatives of the species, which are promising in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, forestry and nature conservation.


Aas, G., & Kohles, M. (2011). Verbreitung, Haufigkeit und Verjungung von Sorbus cordigastensis (Kordigast-Mehlbeere) in der nordlichen Frankenalb. Tuexenia, 31, 59–71.

Allegrini, C., Giard, D., & Mariel, M. (1993). Perpetuer et ameliorer la ressource locale en alisiers: Un projet Haut-Saonois. Revue Forestiere Francaise, 45, 383–387.

Amann, G. (2004). Baume und Straucher des Waldes. Neumann-Neudamm Verlag, Melsungen.

Andrianova, T. V. (2001). Phyllotrophic mitosporic fungi of “Cape Mart’ian” Nature Reserve (Ukraine, Crimea). Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 35,1–10.

Angelone, S., Hilfiker, K., Holderegger, R., Bergamini, A., & Hoebee, S. E. (2007). Regional population dynamics define the local genetic structure in Sorbus torminalis. Molecular Ecology, 16, 1291–1301.

Austerlitz, F., Dick, C. W., Dutech, C., Klein, E. K., Oddou-Muratorio, S., Smouse, P. E., & Sork, V. L. (2004). Using genetic markers to estimate the pollen dispersal curve. Molecular Ecology, 13, 937–954.

Badurowa, M., & Badura, L. (1968). A comparative study on the occurrence of microscopic fungi on leaves and needles from different species of trees growing within the Reserve “Kamien Slazski”. Ekologia Polska – Seria A, 16,253–260.

Bailey, J. P., Kay, Q. O. N., McAllister, H., & Rich, T. C. G. (2008). Chromosome numbers in Sorbus L. (Rosaceae) in the British Isles. Watsonia, 27, 69–72.

Baker, J. G. (1885). A Flora of the English Lake District. George Bell & Sons, London.

Balandier, P., Frochot, H., & Sourisseau, A. (2009). Improvement of direct tree seeding with cover crops in afforestation: Microclimate and resource availability induced by vegetation composition. Forest Ecology and Management, 257, 1716–1724.

Baltacioglu, C., Velioglu, S., & Karacabey, E. (2011). Changes in total phenolic and flavonoid contents of rowanberry fruit during posthatvest storage. Journal of Food Quality, 34, 278–283.

Bamberger, U. (1990). Ergebnisse des Elsbeer-Herkunftsversuchs im Kaiserstuhl. Allgemeine Forst Zeitschrift, 45, 817–818.

Barengo, N., Rudow, A., & Schwab, P. (2001). Forderung seltener Baumarten auf der Schweizer Alpennordseite. Swiss Agency for Environment, Forests and Landscape and Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule, Zurich, Bern, Switzerland.

Barnola, P., Durand, P., & Parmentier, C. (1993). Recherches preliminaires sur la croissance et la morphoge nese de l’alisier torminal. Revue Forestiere Francaise, 45, 261–278.

Battut, A., Grenier, E., & de March, G. (1993). Micropropagation de Sorbus torminalis L. Revue Forestiere Francaise, 45, 284–288.

Bean, W. J. (1980). Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles. 8th edn. Murray, London.

Bednorz, L. (2006). Morphological variability of leaves of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Cratz in Poland. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 75, 233–243.

Bednorz, L. (2007). Morphological variability of fruits and seeds of Sorbus torminalis in Poland. Dendrobiology, 57, 3–14.

Bednorz, L. (2007b). The wild service tree Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz in plant communities of Poland. Dendrobiology, 57, 49–54.

Bednorz, L. (2007c). Conservation of genetic resources of Sorbus torminalis in Poland. Dendrobiologia, 58, 3–7.

Bednorz, L. (2009). Jak chronic jarzaz b brekiniez (Sorbus torminalis) w polskich lasach? [How to protect wild service tree (Sorbus torminalis) in Polish forests?]. Sylwan, 153, 354–360.

Bednorz, L., & Krzakowa, M. (2002). Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) polymorphism in Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 71, 121–124.

Bednorz, L., & Nowinska, R. (2018). Analysis of growth of recruits of natural regeneration of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz – a rare European forest tree species. iForest, 11, 72–78.

Bednorz, L., & Urbaniak, A. (2005). Phenology of the wild service tree (Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz) in Poznan and Wielkopolski National Park. Dendrobiology, 53, 3–10.

Bednorz, L., Kazmierczak, K., & Kaczmarek, L. (2012). Analyses of spatial structure and selected measures of growth of Sorbus torminalis in forest district Jamy (Northern Poland). Dendrobiology, 67, 59–65.

Bednorz, L., Maciejewska-Rutkowska, I., Wronska-Pilarek, D., & Fujiki, T. (2005). Pollen morphology of the Polish species of the genus Sorbus L. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 74, 315–322.

Bednorz, L., Myczko, L., & Kosinski, P. (2004). Isozyme polymorphism and genetic structure of the population of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz from the Bytyn Forest (Poland). Journal of Applied Genetics, 45, 321–324.

Bednorz, L., Myczko, L., & Kosinski, P. (2006). Genetic variability and structure of the wild service tree (Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz) in Poland. Silvae Genetica, 55, 197–202.

Bednorz, L., Walkowiak, R., Maciejewska-Rutkowska, I., & Molinski, K. (2006). Seed variability of the Polish species of the genus Sorbus (Rosaceae). Dendrobiology, 55, 3–9.

Beydemann, I. N. (1974). Metodika izuchіeniya fenologii rastieniy i rastitielnykh soobschiestv [Methods of studying the phenology of plants and plant communities]. Nauka, Novosibirsk (in Russian).

Budantsev, A. L. (Ed.). (2009). Rastitielnyie riesursy Rossii. Dikorastushchihe tsvietkovyie rasteniia, ih komponientnyi sostav i biologichieskaia aktivnost. Siemieystva Actinidiaceae – Malvaceae, Euphorbiaceae – Haloragaceae [Plant resources of Russia. Wild flowering plants, their component composition and biological activity. Family Actinidiaceae – Malvaceae, Euphorbiaceae – Haloragaceae]. Kolos, Moscow (in Russian).

Budzhak, V. V., Chornei, I. I., Havryliuk, V. O., & Turlai, O. L. (2000). Heobotayichna kharakterystyka roslynnykh uhrupovan Pivnichnoi Bukovyny ta Pivnichnoi Bessarabii za uchastiu Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz. [Northern Bukovyna and Northern Bessarabia geobotanical characteristics plant groups with Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz.]. Ruta, Chernivtsi (in Ukrainian).

Cedro, A. (2016). Dendrochronologiczna analiza jarzebu brekinii (Sorbus torminalis L.) w Polsce [Dendrochronological analysis of the wild service tree (Sorbus torminalis L.) in Poland]. Zapol Sobczyk Spólka Jawna, Szczecin (in Polish).

Coello, J., Becquey, J., Ortisset, J. P., Gonin, P., Baiges, T., & Pique, M. (2013). Ecology and silviculture of the main valuable broadleaved species in the Pyrenean area and neighbouring regions. Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries, Food and Natural Environment, Government of Catalonia and Catalan Forest Ownership Centre, Catalonia.

Coello, J., Becquey, J., Ortisset, J. P., Gonin, P., Baiges, T., & Pique, M. (2013). Ecology and silviculture of the main valuable broadleaved species in the pyrenean area and neighbouring regions. Government of Catalonia and Catalan Forest Ownership Centre, Santa Perpètua de Mogoda.

Coetzee, B. W. T. (2017). Evaluating the ecological performance of protected areas. Biodiversity and Conservation, 26(1), 231–236.

de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Durrant, T., & San-Miguel-Ayanz, J. (2016). The European atlas of forest tree species: Modelling, data and information on forest tree species. Publication Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

Demesure, B., Guerroué, G., Lucchi, D., Prat, D., & Petit, R. (2000). Genetic variability of a scattered temperate forest tree: Sorbus torminalis L. (Crantz). Annals of Forest Science, 57, 63–71.

Demesure-Musch, B., & Oddou-Muratorio, S. (2004). Euforgen technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use for wild service tree (Sorbus torminalis). International Plant Genetic Resources, Rome.

Didukh, Y. P. (Ed.). (2009). Chervona knyha Ukrainy. Roslynnyi svit [Red Data Book of Ukraine. Plant kingdom]. Globalconsulting, Kyiv (in Ukrainian).

Drapier, N. (1993a). Connaissance du genre Sorbus. Les Sorbus en France: Caracteres botaniques et generalites. Revue Forestiere Francaise, 45(3), 207–215.

Drapier, N. (1993b). Ecologie del’alisier torminal, Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz. Revue Forestiere Francaise, 45(3), 229–243.

Espahbodi, K., Mirzaei-Nadoushan, H., Emadian, S. F. A., Sabbagh, S., & Ghasemi, S. (2002). The effect of sowing depth and soil protection for seed germination of service tree (Sorbus torminalis) in a mountainous nursery. Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 55(1), 47–55.

Espahbodi, K., Mirzaie-Nodoushan, H., Tabari, M., Akbarinia, M., Jalali, S., & Hosseini, S. (2007). Seed source effects on seed emergence, seedling survival and growth on wild service (Sorbus torminalis) seedlings. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 9, 426–430.

Espahbodi, K., Mirzaie-Nodoushannodoushan, H., Tabari, M., Akbarinia, M., Dehghan-Shuraki, Y., & Jalali, S. G. (2017). Genetic variation in early growth characteristics of two populations of wild service tree (Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz) and their interrelationship. Silvae Genetica, 57, 1–6.

Gaivelyte, K., Jakstas, V., Razukas, A., & Janulis, V. (2014). Variation of quantitative composition of phenolic compounds in rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) leaves during the growth season. Natural Product Communications, 28(8), 1018–1020.

Gordiyenko, М. І. (2007). Lisovi kultury rivnynnoi chastyny Ukrainy [Forest crops of the lowland part of Ukraine]. Naukova Dumka, Кyiv (in Ukrainian).

Grynyk, I., Moskalets, T., Frantsishko, V. S, Moskalets, V., Chmyr, S., Lyaskovsky, A., Frantsishko, V., Frantsishko, V. V., & Matlai, I. (2019). Bereka (Sorbus torminalis (L.) crantz): Novi selektsiyni formy ta perspektyvy ih vykorystannia v sadivnytstvi [Сheckertree mountainash (Sorbus torminalis (L.) crantz): New breeding forms and promises of their use in horticulture]. Horticulture, 74, 45–65 (in Ukrainian).

Hasbal, G., Yilmaz-Ozden, T., & Can, A. (2015). Antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz (wild service tree) fruits. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 23(1), 57–62.

Hoebee, S., Menn, C., Rotach, P., Finkeldey, R., & Holderegger, R. (2006). Spatial genetic structure of Sorbus torminalis: The extent of clonal reproduction in natural stands of a rare tree species with a scattered distribution. Forest Ecology and Management, 226, 1–8.

Jankowska-Wroblewska, S., Meyza, K., Sztupecka, E., Kubera, L., & Burczyk, J. (2016а). Clonal structure and high genetic diversity at peripheral populations of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz. iForest, 9, 892–900.

Jankowska-Wroblewska, S., Warmbier, J., & Burczyk, J. (2016b). Spatial genetic structure within populations of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz: Comparative analysis of the self-incompatibility locus and nuclear microsatellites. Acta Biologica Cracoviensia, Botanica, 58(1), 7–17.

Krynytskyi, H. T., Hayda, Y. I., Yatsyk, R. M., Parpan, V. I., & Los, S. A. (2017). Concept for the conservation and sustainable use of forest genetic resources in Ukraine. Scientific Bulletin of National Forestry University of Ukraine, 27(8), 37–44.

Kushnеrоvа, N. F., Моmоt, Т. V., Fоmеnkо, S. Y., & Sprygin, V. G. (2014). Profilaktika stressovyikh narusheniy uglevodnogo i lipidno go obmiena piechieni ekstraktom iz otzhima plodov riabiny [Prevention of stress disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of the liver extract from the extraction of rowan berries]. Health, Medical Ecology, Science, 56, 36–38 (in Russian).

Kоsеts, М. І. (1941). Systematyka, heohrafichne poshyrennia i istoriia Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz na foni zahalnogo rozvytku rodu Sorbus L. [Systematics, geographical distribution and history Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz against the background of the general development of the genus Sorbus L.]. Botanical Journal of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 2(1), 43–50 (in Ukrainian).

Lefèvre, F., Alia, R., Bakkebо Fjellstad, K., Graudal, L., Oggioni, S., Rusanen, M., Vendramin, G., & Bozzano, M. (2020). Dynamic conservation and utilization of forest tree genetic resources: Indicators for in situ and ex situ genetic conservation and forest reproductive material. European Forest Institute, Barcelona.

Madera, P., Ticha, S., & Repka, R. (2013). Distribution and ecological requirements of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz in the Czech Republic. Dendrobiology, 69, 59–68.

Mikulic-Petkovsek, M., Krška, B., Kiprovski, B., & Veberic, R. (2017). Bioactive components and antioxidant capacity of fruits from nine Sorbus genotypes. Journal of Food Science, 82(3), 647–658.

Mikulic-Petkovsek, М., Ivancic, А., Schmitzera, V., Veberica, R., & Stampara, F. (2016). Comparison of major taste compounds and antioxidative properties of fruits and flowers of different Sambucus species and interspecific hybrids. Food Chemistry, 200, 134–140.

Moskalets, T. Z., & Rybalchenko, V. K. (2016). Kontseptualna model keruvannia zhyttievym stanom roslynnykh ekomorf za kryteriiamy mekhanizmiv adaptyvnosti [Conceptual model of management the vital state plant eсomorрhs by the criteria of adaptation mechanisms]. Visnyk of Dnipropetrovsk University, Biology, Ecology, 4(1), 211–221 (in Ukrainian).

Moskalets, T. Z., Moskalets, V. V., Vovkohon, А. H., Shevchuk, О. А., & Matviichuk, О. А. (2019). Modern breeding and cultivation of unpopular fruits and berries in Ukraine. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 9(3), 204–213.

Moskalets, T. Z., Vasylkivskyi, S. P., Morgun, B. V., Moskalets, V. І., Moskalets, V. V., & Rybalchenko, V. K. (2016). New genotypes and technological indicators of winter triticale. Biotechnologia Acta, 9(1), 79–86.

Moskalets, V. V., Grynyk, I. V., Moskalets, T. Z., Frantsishko, V. S., & Batochenko, V. M. (2020). Metodychni rekomendatsii z vyznachennia ekoloho-adaptyvnoho i produktyvnoho ahrobiopotentsialu deiakukh roslyn, maloposhyrenykh v kulturi sadivnytstva Ukrainy [Methodical recommendations to determine ecological-adaptive and productive agrobio potential of some plants which are minor crops in horticulture of Ukraine]. Centr Uchbovoi Literatury, Kyiv (in Ukrainian).

Moskalets, Т. Z., Frantsishko, V. S., Knyazyuk, O. V., Pеlеkhаtyi, V. М., Pеlеkhаtа, N. P., Moskalets, V. V., Vovkohon, А. H., Sliusarenko, S. V., Morgun, B. V., Gunko, S. М., Podpriatov, H. І., Voitsekhivskyi, V. І., & Voitsekhivska, О. V. (2019a). Morphological variability, biochemical parameters of berries different ecotypes Hippophae rhamnoides L. and the possibilities for their targeted use in the food-processing industry. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 9(4), 749–764.

Mosyakin, S. L., & Fedoronchuk, M. N. (1999). Vascular plants of Ukraine. A nomenclatural checklist. Naukova Dumka, Kyiv.

Mrkonjić, Z., Nađpal, J., Beara, I., Aleksić Sabo, V., Četojević-Simin, D., Mimica-Dukić, N., & Lesjak, M. (2017). Phenolic profiling and bioactivities of fresh fruits and jam of Sorbus species. Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, 82(6), 651–664.

Nemeth, C. (2015). Sorbus pelsoensis (Sorbus subgenus tormaria), a new species from the surroundings of Lake Balaton, Hungary. Studia Botanica Hungarica, 46, 49–60.

Oddou-Muratorio, S., Demesure-Musch, B., Pélissier, R., & Gouyon, P.-H. (2004). Impacts of gene flow and logging history on the local genetic structure of a scattered tree species, Sorbus torminalis L. (Crantz). Molecular Ecology, 13, 3689–3702.

Olszewska, M. (2011). In vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the inflorescences, leaves and fruits of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica, 68(6), 945–953.

Olszewska, M., & Michel, P. (2009). Antioxidant activity of inflorescences, leaves and fruits of three Sorbus species in relation to their polyphenolic composition. Natural Product Research, 23(16), 1507–1521.

Orsanic, M., Drvodelic, D., Jemric, T., Anic, I., & Mikac, S. (2009). Variability of morphological and biological characteristics of wild service tree (Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz) fruits and seeds from different altitudes. Periodicum Biologorum, 111, 495–504.

Paul, M., Hinrichs, T., Janßen, A., Schmitt, H.-P., Soppa, B., Stephan, B.-R., & Dörflinger, H. (2000). Konzept zur erhaltung und nachhaltigen nutzung forstlicher genressourcen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Forstliche Genressourcen und Forstsaatgutrecht, Neufassung.

Pohrebniak, P. S. (1993). Lisova ekolohiia i typolohiia lisiv [Forest ecology and typology of forests]. Naukova Dumka, Kyiv (in Ukrainian).

Pyttel, P., Kunz, J., & Bauhus, J. (2011). Age and growth of Wild service tree (Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz) in former oak coppice forests in southwest Germany. In: Maaten-Theunissen, M., Spiecker, H., Cartner, H. G., Helle, G., & Heinrich, I. (Eds.). TRACE – Tree rings in archaeology, climatology and ecology, scientific technical report. GFZ Potsdam, Potsdam. Рр. 64–70.

Pyttel, P., Kunz, J., & Bauhus, J. (2013). Growth, regeneration and shade tolerance of the wild service tree (Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz) in aged oak coppice forests. Trees, 27, 1609–1619.

Raudone, L., Raudonis, R., Gaivelyte, K., & Gaivelyte, K. (2014). Phytochemical and antioxidant profiles of leaves from different Sorbus L. species. Natural Product Research, 29(3), 1–5.

Rich, T. C. G., Green, D., Houston, L., Lepsı, M., Ludwig, S., & Pellicer, J. (2014). British Sorbus (Rosaceae): Six new species, two hybrids and a new subgenus. New Journal of Botany, 4(1), 2–12.

Rivers, M., Beech, E., Bazos, I., Bogunić, F., Buira, A., Caković, D., Carapeto, A., Carta, A., Cornier, B., Fenu, G., Fernandes, F., Fraga-Arguimbau, P., Garcia Murillo, P., Lepší, M., Matevski, V., Medina, F., Menezes de Sequeira, M., Meyer, N., Mikoláš, V., Montagnani, C., Monteiro-Henriques, T., Naranjo Suárez, J., Orsenigo, S., Petrova, A., Reyes-Betancort, A., Rich, T., Salvesen, P. H., Santana López, I., Scholz, S., Sennikov, A., Shuka, L., Silva, L. F., Thomas, P., Troia, A., Villar, J. L., & Allen, D. (2019). European Red List of Trees. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Cambridge and Brussels.

Rоmаnchuk, О. P. (Ed.). (2017). Podillia. Litopys pryrody Natsionalnyy Pryrodnyy Park “Karmeliukove Podillia” [Podillia. Chronicle of nature NNP “Karmeliukove Podillia”]. Prosvita, Chechelnyk (in Ukrainian).

Sennikov, A., & Kurtto, A. (2017). A phylogenetic checklist of Sorbus s.l. (Rosaceae) in Europe. Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica, 93, 2–78.

Shahraji, T. R., Sheikhali, M., & Pourbabaei, H. (2013). Leaves polymorphism and fruit shapes variation of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz in Hyrcanian forest. Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology, 4(1), 11–14.

Shelyag-Sosonko, Y. R., Dubinа, D. V., Vakarenko, L. P., Моvchаn, Y. І., Dіdukh, Y. P., Zаhоrоdniuk, І. V., Pоpоvych, S. Y., Тkаch, V. P., & Мukhаlkіv, V. М. (2003). Zberezshennia i nevysnazshlyve vykorystannia bioriznomanittia Ukrainy: Stan ta perspektyvy [Preservation of biological diversity in Ukraine: State and prospects]. Chimdzhest, Kyiv (in Ukrainian).

Shpak, N. P. (2018). Plodonoshennia ta pryrodne ponovlennia Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz pid nametom dubovykh nasadzhen u Pivdenno-Podilsomu Lisostepu Ukrainy [Fruiting and natural restoration of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz under the oak stands canopy in the South-Podilsky Forest-Steppe of Ukraine]. Scientific Bulletin of National Forestry University of Ukraine, 28(10), 53–56 (in Ukrainian).

Shpak, N. P. (2019). Monitorynh pryrodnoho vidnovlennia bereky likarskoi v dubovo-grabovykh dibrovakh Pivdenno-Podilskoho Lisostepu Ukrayiny [Monitoring of natural renewal of species Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz the conditions south of Podolsk Forest-Steppe of Ukraine]. Scientific Bulletin of National Forestry University of Ukraine, 29(5), 27–30 (in Ukrainian).

Shpak, N. P., Shlapak, V. P., & Leontiak, H. P. (2017). Osoblyvosti kultyvuvannia nasadzhen duba zvychainoho za uchastiu bereky likarskoi v umovakh Pivdennoho Podillia [Some peculiarities of cultivation of common oak stands involving wild service tree in Southern Podillia]. Scientific Bulletin of National Forestry University of Ukraine, 27(3), 71–74 (in Ukrainian).

Szymura, T. H., Szymura, M., & Pietrzak, M. (2014). Influence of land relief and soil properties on stand structure of overgrown oak forests of coppice originwith Sorbus torminalis. Dendrobiology, 71, 49–58.

Termena, B. K., & Budzhak, V. V. (1997). Reproduktyvnyi potentsial Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz. v umovakh Pivnichnoi Bukovyny [Reproductive potential of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz. in the conditions of Northern Bukovynа]. Naukova Dumka, Kyiv (in Ukrainian).

Thomas, P. A. (2017). Biological flora of the British Isles: Sorbus torminalis. Journal of Ecology, 105, 1806–1831.

Tkachyk, S. O. (Ed.). (2016). Metodyka provedennia ekspertyzy sortiv roslyn hrupy lisovyh nа vidminnist, odnoridnist i stabilnis [Guidelines for the conduct of tests of plant varieties of the forest group for distinctness, uniformity and stability]. Nilan-LOD, Vinnytsia (in Ukrainian).

Ulaszewski, B., Sandurska, E., Sztupecka, E., & Burczyk, J. (2017). The complete chloroplast genome sequence of wild service tree Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz. Conservation Genetics Resources, 9, 419–422.

Veberic, R., Slatnar, A., Bizjak, J., Stampar, F., & Mikulic-Petkovsek, M. (2015). Anthocyanin composition of different wild and cultivated berry spesies. Food Science and Technology, 60, 509–517.

Werres, J. M. (2018). Zur tierökologischen Bedeutung der Elsbeere (Sorbus torminalis L. Crantz). Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, Bonn.

Zwierzyński, J., & Bednorz, L. (2012). Regional programme of conservation and restitution of Sorbus torminalis in the territory of the regional directorate of the state forests in Piła in 2010–2013. Nauka, Przyroda, Technologie, 6(3), 4–6.

How to Cite
МоskаlеtsТ. Z., VоvkоhоnА. H., BаrаtY. М., KnyazyukО. V., & Verheles, P. N. (2020). Morphological and ecological peculiarities of checker tree mountain ash (Torminalis glaberrima) plants and biochemical composition of its fruits . Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 11(3), 405–413.