Regulation of physiological processes in winter wheat by growth regulators in conditions of powdery mildew infection
AbstractAn important way of regulating the key units of metabolism in the plant organism under the action of stressors is the use of biologically active substances with regulating properties – plant growth regulators. They affect endogenous regulatory systems, altering key metabolic pathways and thus increasing the plant's sustainability and productive potential in adverse environmental conditions. The aim of the research was to establish the possibility of regulation of physiological processes in winter wheat varieties by exogenous treatment of plants with growth regulators of synthetic (salicylic acid) and natural (Emistim C and Biolan) origin to increase their resistance to the phytopathogen Erysiphe graminis DC f. sp. tritici Em. Marchal , the causative agent of powdery mildew. The intensity of the physiological processes in plants was evaluated by the dynamics of the activity of antioxidant enzymes – ascorbate peroxidase and catalase, the release of ethylene and the integrity of the cell membranes. The objects were selected varieties of soft winter wheat, which were grown in controlled growing conditions against the background of infection by powdery mildew. The treatment of plants was carried out using aqueous salicylic acid solutions in the concentration of 10–5 M (experimentally established by us), Emistim C and Biolan (manufacturer Agrobiotech) in the concentration specified by the manufacturer at the rate of 20 mL/ha, when the development of the disease reached 5% of the total natural background of the infection in the plants during the stages of heading-beginning of flowering. Infection of winter wheat with powdery mildew leads to disruption of cell membrane integrity, increased activity of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase in leaves of the susceptible winter wheat variety. The intensification of ethylene release by leaves of the resistant variety was observed, which was caused by the hypersensitive reaction of the hormone to the effect of stress. The use of plant treatment by growth regulators contributes to maintaining the integrity of membrane structures, adaptive changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and regulation of the synthesis of the stress hormone ethylene in both winter wheat varieties under stress. Such changes in the physiological processes induced by plant growth regulators are accompanied by the preservation of the grain productivity of winter wheat and the increase of their resistance to the development of the disease.
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