Genetic aspects of metabolic disorders in pregnant women with pathological weight gain
AbstractPolymorphism of the leptin receptor gene (LEPR) has been shown to be linked to obesity-related metabolic markers and phenotype. Therefore, we hypothesized that the Gln233Arg LEPR polymorphism is related to metabolic changes in pregnancy and the risk of excessive gestational weight gain (GWG). A total of 97 pregnant women with a singleton gestation were enrolled from April 2016 until December 2018. Genetic variants of LEPR were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, leptin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, lipid profile, and carbohydrate status were assessed in the first, and third trimesters of pregnancy. The recommended GWG was diagnosed in 34.0%, insufficient in 19.6%, and excessive in 46.4% patients. Statistical analysis revealed that 20.6% patients were with AA genotype, 50.5% – AG genotype, and 28.9% – GG genotype. The frequency of GG-alleles carriers of the LEPR Gln233Arg gene in the group of excessive GWG patients was 3 times higher compared to recommended GWG patients. Thus, the inheritance of pathological G-homozygotes increases the risk of excessive weight gain by 7 times, compared to carriers of the AA genotype. LEPR GG polymorphism was significantly associated with high levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, lipoprotein low and very low density, and leptin compared to homozygous А-carriers in the third trimester of pregnancy. In pregnant women with GG polymorphism, the glucose level, insulin level, and HOMO-IR index were significantly increased compared to women with AA genotype in late pregnancy. In the group with excessive GWG, the presence of GG-alleles of the LEPR gene was accompanied by a higher level of hyperleptinemia, compared to carriers of AA-genotype. Inheritance of pathological G-homozygotes was associated with hyperlipidemia, leptin resistance with high leptin serum levels, and increased insulin resistance, which was especially manifested in excessive GWG. In our opinion, excessive GWG can be seen as a marker of the mother's genotype and genetic predisposition to the development of metabolic diseases after delivery.
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