Mathematical interpretation of artificial ovoids and avian egg shapes (part I)
AbstractWe performed comparative analysis of curvature characteristics of bird eggs and used ovoid profiles from various authors, our own geometric profiles, and archive bird egg profiles from our database. We suggested that the possible ovoids arise by changing the curvature radii of the polar and lateral zones. We compared the constructed curves and curves presented in oological literature with the pictures of the real bird egg profiles. The volume of actual material includes 16,490 eggs from 800 species of 20 bird orders. Specially designed computer software had calculated the radius of curvature of real bird eggs from photos and drew out the half-profiles presented in our article. We supposed that the asymmetrical ovoid is the most widespread geometric egg-shaped figure, which can easily be obtained by combination of circles. We also calculated that if the ovoid diameter were taken as a unit, then the radius obtuse (infundibular) pole would be equal to its half-length, lateral (side arcs) is equal two lengths, and the cloacal arch is 1–√2/2. From this suggestion, we concluded that the length of the ovoid is 2–√2/2 and its cloacal radius is equal to the difference between the length of ovoid and its diameter (rc = L–D). We analyzed the geometry of this asymmetrical oval and came to the conclusion that this is the basic form able to generate the derivative forms. We discovered that the centres of the arcs which form it lie on one basic/supporting circle, the diameter of which is equal to the ovoid diameter. All other ovoids, which have radius equal to radius of the infundibular zone we called the real ovoids. The changes in the radii of the lateral arcs are caused by the movement of their centres along a horizontal line passing through the centre of the base circle. This causes the prolongation or shortening of the ovoids. Sizes of cloacal arcs depended on the lateral, and their centres are placed along the vertical axis. Variability of the sizes of the abovementioned arcs caused the variability of form of the bird eggs. For their classification, we have proposed to divide them into five groups: sphere-like, circle, obtuse, droplet, and cone-shaped. Further, we separated some more groups: short, shortened, normal, lengthened, and long; according to the sizes of cloacal arcs – large radius, middle radius, and small radius ovoids. As a result, we have 80 forms of real ovoids – standards which describe the varieties of bird eggs. Each of them has its own number, name, geometrical figure, polynomic equation, and correlations of ovoid parameters. This set of ovoids is sufficient to describe the specifics of any form of bird eggs.
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