Effect of drought on photosynthetic apparatus, activity of antioxidant enzymes, and productivity of modern winter wheat varieties
AbstractThe response of modern winter wheat varieties to soil drought was studied with aim of phenotyping their drought tolerance characteristics and identification of the most informative indices that may be suitable for use in breeding programs. Plants of winter bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties Podolyanka, Khurtovyna, Vinnychanka and Prydniprovska were grown in a pot experiment. The soil moisture for control plants was maintained at a level of 70% of field capacity (FC) throughout the vegetative stage. At the flowering, watering of the treated plants was stopped to reduce the soil moisture to a level of 30% FC and then this soil moisture level was maintained for 10 days. After that, the irrigation of the treated plants was restored to the level of control. It was found that in the flag leaf under drought condition, the chlorophyll content, net CO2 assimilation rate, and transpiration rate decreased, while the leaf water deficit, the ratio of photorespiration to CO2 assimilation, and the activity of chloroplasts antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase) increased. The ten-day drought significantly reduced the grain yield from the plant. Calculations of the relative changes in the physiological parameters of treated plants as compared to the control were the most informative for the differentiation of varieties for drought tolerance. Relative changes in the content of chlorophyll in the flag leaf under drought and reduction in the total biomass of the plant closely correlated with a decrease in grain productivity (r = 0.92 and r = 0.96 respectively). There was also a significant correlation of grain productivity with a decrease in the NAR measured in the period of drought (r = 0.68). Therefore, the maintenance of the photosynthetic function of plants under conditions of insufficient water supply plays a determinant role in reducing the grain productivity losses. The relative changes in the chlorophyll content and CO2 assimilation rate in plants subjected to drought as compared to control may be used as markers of drought tolerance of genotypes for genetic improvement of wheat by conventional breeding and biotechnological methods.
Arnon, D. I. (1949). Copper enzyme in isolated chloroplasts. Polyphenolooxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology, 24(1), 1–15.
Bai, J., Kang, T., Wu, H. D., Lu, B. Y., Long, X. G., Luo, X. J., Zhang, Y. Y., Zhou, Y. L., & Gong, C. M. (2017). Relative contribution of photorespiration and antioxidative mechanisms in Caragana korshinskii under drought condi tions across the Loess Plateau. Functional Plant Biology, 44(11), 1111–1123.
Barutcular, C., El Sabagh, A., Koc, M., & Ratnasekera, D. (2017). Relationships between grain yield and physiological traits of durum wheat varieties under drought and high temperature stress in mediterranean environments. Frese nius Environmental Bulletin, 26(6), 4282–4291.
Carmody, M., Waszczak, C., Idänheimo, N., Saarinen, T., & Kangasjärvi, J. (2016). ROS signalling in a destabilised world: A molecular understanding of climate change. Journal of Plant Physiology, 203(1), 69–83.
Carmo-Silva, E., Andralojc, P. J., Scales, J. C., Driever, S. M., Mead, A., Lawson, T., Raines, C. A., & Parry, M. A. J. (2017). Phenotyping of field-grown wheat in the UK highlights contribution of light response of photosynthesis and flag leaf longevity to grain yield. Journal of Experimental Botany, 68(13), 3473–3486.
Cattivelli, L., Rizza, F., Badeck, F.-W., Mazzucotelli, E., Mastrangelo, A. M., Francia, E., Mare, C., Tondelli, A., & Stanca, A. M. (2008). Drought tolerance improvement in crop plants: An integrated view from breeding to genomics. Field Crops Research, 105(1), 1–14.
Caverzan, A., Casassola, A., & Brammer, S. P. (2016). Antioxidant responses of wheat plants under stress. Genetics and Molecular Biology, 39(1), 1–6.
Chen, G.-X., & Asada, K. (1989). Ascorbate peroxidase in tea leaves: Occurrence of two isozymes and the differences in their and molecular properties. Plant and Cell Physiology, 30(7), 987–998.
Demyanyuk, O. S. (2015). Prodovol'cha bezpeka Ukrainy v kontekstí zmín klímatu [Food safety of Ukraine in the context of climate change]. Agroecological Journal, 4, 14–21 (in Ukrainian).
Distelfeld, A., Avni, R., & Fischer, A. M. (2014). Senescence, nutrient remobilize tion, and yield in wheat and barley. Journal of Experimental Botany, 65(14), 3783–3798.
Ehonen, S., Yarmolinsky, D., Kollist, H., & Kangasjarvi, J. (2018). Reactive oxygen species, photosynthesis, and environment in the regulation of stomata. Anti oxidants and Redox Signaling, in print.
Giannopolitis, C. N., & Ries, S. K. (1977). Superoxide dismutase. Occurrence in higher plants. Plant Physiology, 59(2), 309–314.
Gupta, P. K., Balyan, H. S., Gahlaut, V., & Kulwal, P. L. (2012). Phenotyping, genetic dissection, and breeding for drought and heat tolerance in common wheat: Status and prospects. Plant Breeding Reviews, 36, 85–168.
Hanawa, H., Ishizaki, K., Nohira, K., Takagi, D., Shimakawa, G., Sejima, T., Shaku, K., Makino, A., & Miyake, C. (2017). Land plants drive photorespiration as higher electron-sink: Comparative study of post-illumination transient O2-uptake rates from liverworts to angiosperms through ferns and gymno sperms. Physiologia Plantarum, 161(1), 138–149.
Ji, X. M., Shiran, B., Wan, J. L., Lewis, D. C., Jenkins, C. L. D., Condon, A. G., Richards, R. A., & Dolferus, R. (2010). Importance of pre-anthesis anther sink strength for maintenance of grain number during reproductive stage water stress in wheat. Plant, Cell and Environment, 33(6), 926–942.
Kolupaev, Y. E., & Karpets, Y. V. (2014). Aktivnyye formy kisloroda i stressovyy signaling u rasteniy [Active oxygen forms and stress signaling in plants]. Ukrainian Biochemical Journal, 86(4), 18–35 (in Russian).
Lawlor, D. W., & Tezara, W. (2009). Causes of decreased photosynthetic rate and metabolic capacity in water-deficient leaf cells: A critical evaluation of mechanisms and integration of processes. Annals of Botany, 103(4), 561–579.
Lesk, C., Rowhani, P., Ramankutty, N. (2016). Influence of extreme weather disasters on global crop production. Nature, 529(7584), 84–87.
Lopes, M. S., Rebetzke, G. J., & Reynolds, M. (2014). Integration of phenotyping and genetic platforms for a better understanding of wheat performance under drought. Journal of Experimental Botany, 65(21), 6167–6177.
Mittler, R. (2017). ROS are good. Trends in Plant Sciences, 22(1), 11–19.
Morgun, V. V., & Kiriziy, D. A. (2012). Perspektyvy i suchasni strategii polipshen nya fiziologichnykh oznak pshenitsy dlia pidvyschennya ii produktyvnosti [Prospects and modern strategies of wheat physiological traits improvement for increasing productivity]. Physiology and Biochemistry of Cultivated Plants, 44(6), 463–483 (in Ukrainian).
Morgun, V. V., Kiriziy, D. A., & Shadchina, T. M. (2010). Ekofiziologicheskiye i geneticheskiye aspekty adaptatsii kul'turnykh rasteniy k global'nym izmene niyam klimata [Ecophysiological and genetic aspects of adaptation of cultiva ted plants to global climate changes]. Physiology and Biochemistry of Culti vated Plants, 42(1), 3–22 (in Russian).
Morgun, V. V., Stasik, O. O., Kiriziy, D. A., & Pryadkina, G. O. (2016). Zvyazok reaktsiyi fotosyntetychnykh pokaznykiv i zernovoyi produktyvnosti na grun tovu posukhu v kontrastnykh za stiykistyu sortiv ozymoyi pshenytsi [Rela tions between reactions of photosynthetic traits and grain productivity on soil drought in winter wheat varieties contrasting in their tolerance]. Plant Physio logy and Genetics, 48(5), 371–381 (in Ukrainian).
Neto, M. C. L., Silveira, J. A. G., Cerqueira, J. V. A., & Cunha, J. R. (2017). Regula tion of the photosynthetic electron transport and specific photoprotective mechanisms in Ricinus communis under drought and recovery. Acta Physio logiae Plantarum, 39(8), 183.
Passioura, J. B. (2012). Phenotyping for drought tolerance in grain crops: When it is useful to breeders? Functional Plant Biology, 39(11), 851–859.
Pinheiro, C., & Chaves, M. M. (2011). Photosynthesis and drought: Can we make metabolic connections from available data? Journal of Experimental Botany, 62(3), 869–882.
Sade, B., Soylu, S., & Yetim, E. (2011). Drought and oxidative stress. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(54), 11102–11109.
Sadras, V. O., & Richards, R. A. (2014). Improvement of crop yield in dry environments: Benchmarks, levels of organization and the role of nitrogen. Journal of Experimental Botany, 65(8), 1981–1995.
Shmatko, I. G., Grigoryuk, I. A., Shvedova, O. E., & Petrenko, N. I. (1985). Opredeleniye fiziologicheskoy reaktsii zernovykh kul'tur na ukhudsheniye vodoobespechennosti i povysheniye temperatury [Determination of the physiological reaction of cereals to deterioration of water availability and temperature increase]. IPPG, Kiev (in Russian).
Singh, S., Gupta, A. K., & Kaur, N. (2012). Differential responses of antioxidative defence system to long-term field drought in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes differing in drought tolerance. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 98(3), 185–195.
Stasik, O. O. (2014). Fotodykhaniye: Metabolizm i fiziologicheskaya rol' [Photores piration: Metabolism and the physiological role]. In: Allahverdiev, S. I., Rubin, A. B., & Shuvalov, V. A. (Eds.). Modern photosynthetic problems. Institute for Computer Research, Moskow, Izhevsk. Vol. 2. Pp. 505–535 (in Russian).
Stasik, О. О. (2007). Reaktsiya fotosyntetychnogo aparatu C3 roslyn na vodnyi defi tsit [The response of photosynthetic apparatus of C3 plants to water deficits]. Physiology and Biochemistry of Cultivated Plants, 39(1), 14–27 (in Ukrainian).
Valifard, M., Moradshahi, A., & Kholdebarin, B. (2012). Biochemical and phy siological responses of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars to drought stress applied at seedling stage. Journal of Agricultural Science and Techno logy, 14(S), 1567–1578.
Wellburn, A. R. (1994). The spectral determination of chlorophylls a and b, as well as total carotenoids, using various solvents with spectrophotometers of different resolution. Plant Physiology, 144, 307–313.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons «Attribution» 4.0 License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.