Optimization of Ginkgo biloba cultivation technology in open soil conditions
AbstractIn recent years, interest in cultivating Ginkgo biloba L. as a medicinal plant has grown in Ukraine, and improvement of the technology of growing this plant in the conditions of the North-East of Ukraine is a relevant problem. The purpose of this article to present research on the morphological structure, growth and viability of young G. biloba plants in grown from seeds by different technologies and comparative analysis of growth and development of G. biloba plants under greenhouse conditions and on open soil. The experiment on G. biloba cultivation was initiated in 2014 in three variants (the plants were grown from the seeds). Variant No 1: G. biloba growing in a greenhouse at 60–80% humidity and temperatures not below +27 ºС; shading (shading level 60%) by green agronetting. Variant No 2: growing in open soil; shading (shading level 60%) by green agronetting; the climatic conditions were typical for Sumy region. Variant No 3: growing in open soil; there was no shading; climatic conditions were typical for the Sumy region. Plant analysis was conducted in June 2018. The following morphometric parameters of G. biloba plants were measured: plant height, annual growth of shoots, number of leaves, leaf size and leaf area, phytomass of the shoots, phytomass of leaves and phytomass of the stem, diameter of the shoots. The sampling used 60 samples. The leaf area was determined by the method of drawing contours on millimeter paper. Statistical processing of research results was carried out by generally accepted modern methods of mathematical statistics using dispersion, correlation, regression and vital analysis. In the conditions of the Ukrainian North East, G. biloba seedlings can be grown successfully in greenhouses and open soil, both with 60% shade by agronetting and without it. Differences between the plants grown in such conditions are insignificant and statistically unreliable. The obtained three to four year old G. biloba seedlings grown using different technologies were 25–30 cm in height and formed 13–17 leaves per plant. The seedlings were of quite high viability (Q is 0.22–0.30) and morphostructural integrity (67.8%). The output of viable seedlings (vital classes “a” and “b”) in variant 1 was 60%, variant 2 45% and variant 3 60%. Ecological-cenotic stability of G. biloba was observed repeatedly, though certain limitations on G. biloba cultivation may be that the plant is photophilic and thermophilic. But the conducted experiments show that the climatic conditions of the Ukrainian North-East are quite favourable for this species. Based on the data obtained for the Ukrainian North-East, it is possible to recommend the technology of growing G. biloba seedlings in open soil without agronetting as quite effective and low-cost.
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