Comparative characteristics of the composition of microbial associations of the gastrointestinal tract in humans in the norm and during dysbiosis

  • T. M. Shevchenko Oles Honchar Dnіpro Natіonal Unіversity
  • I. L. Rozhnyeva Oles Honchar Dnіpro Natіonal Unіversity
  • T. V. Dyklenko Oles Honchar Dnіpro Natіonal Unіversity
  • O. S. Voronkova Oles Honchar Dnіpro Natіonal Unіversity
Keywords: dysbiosis, opportunistic microorganisms, association, gastrointestinal tract


The causes of the imbalance of the microbiota of the human body, in particular the intestines, are diverse: they include changes in environmental conditions, inappropriate nutrition and the use of harmful products, acute intestinal infections, chronic diseases and dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract, the widespread use of antibiotics, reduced immunological reactivity of the organism, etc. Dysbiosis is accompanied by an increase of the detection frequency and quantity of opportunistic microorganisms. Such changes are characterized by negative consequences that can provoke the development of a number of complications of the functioning of various systems and organs of the human body. If significant deviations of the composition of the microflora compared to the state of the norm take place, it is absolutely necessary to correct it, which is possible with the use of preparations based on microbial cultures – probiotics. However, the mechanisms of antagonistic relationships between representatives of opportunistic microflora and normal non-pathogenic flora from different ecotopes of the macroorganism have not been completely studied. At the same time, it is known that the development of various forms of infectious processes, both acute and chronic, depends on the manifestation of pathogenicity and the persistence of a potential pathogen. Important for the correction of dysbiotic states is knowledge of the microbiota composition characteristics, including the formation of associations by individual of microorganisms in the associations, which in each case requires the development of individual approaches to therapy. In view of this, the aim of our research was to analyze the frequency of detection of opportunistic microorganisms and their associations in people with dysbiosis of gastrointestinal tract. As a result of our studies on the composition of the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract, in the contingent of the surveyed persons dysbiosis was confirmed for 56 (77.8%) individuals. It was determined that during normobiosis the formation of the following associations was typical: triple and five-membered 25.0%, six-membered – 18.8%, and most numerous-four membered associations – 31.3%. Of these, bacterial associations were determined in 87.5% of cases, bacterial-fungi associations – in 12.5%. During dysbiosis of the gastrointestinal tract, the following groups of microorganisms were isolated: Staphylococcus – 87.5%, Citrobacter – 64.3%, Klebsiella – 51.8%, Streptococcus – 50.0%, Serratia – 25%, Candida – 21.4%, and Hafnia – 5.4%, which were the part of the associations: six members – 37.5%, four members constituted – 25.0%, five members – 21.4%,three members – 14.3%, and a double association – 1.8%. Bacterial associations were determined in 78.6% of cases, bacterial-fungi associations – in 21.4%. 


Ardesia, M., Villanacci, V., & Fries, W. (2015). The aged gut in inflammatory bowel diseases. Minerva Gastroenterologica E Dietologica, 61(4), 235–247.

Bellaguarda, E., & Chang, E. B. (2015). IBD and the gut microbiota – from bench to personalized medicine. Current Gastroenterology Reports, 17(4), 15.

Brown, K., DeCoffe, D., Molcan, E., & Gibson, D. L. (2012). Diet-induced dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota and the effects on immunity and disease. Nutrients, 4, 1095–1119.

Buttó, L. F., & Haller, D. (2016). Dysbiosis in intestinal inflammation: Cause or consequence. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, 306(5), 302–309.

Chang, C., & Lin, H. (2016). Dysbiosis in gastrointestinal disorders. Best Practice and Research: Clinical Gastroenterology, 30(1), 3–15.

Cheng, R. Y, Li, M., Li, S. S., He, M., Yu, X. H., Shi, L., & He, F. (2017). Vancomycin and ceftriaxone can damage intestinal microbiota and affect the development of the intestinal tract and immune system to different degrees in neonatal mice. Pathogens and Disease, 75(8).

DeGruttola, A. K., Low, D., Mizoguchi, A., & Mizoguchi, E. (2016). Current understanding of dysbiosis in disease in human and animal models. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, 22(5), 1137–1150.

Flint, H. J., Scott, K. P., Louis, P., & Duncan, S. H. (2012). The role of the gut microbiota in nutrition and health. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 9, 577–589.

Holt, J. G., Кrieg, N. R., Sneath, P. H. A., Staley, J. T., & Williams, S. T. (Eds.). (1994). Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.

Jalanka-Tuovinen, J., Salonen, A., Nikkila, J., Immonen, O., Kekkonen, R., Lahti, L., Palva, A., & de Vos, W. M. (2011). Intestinal microbiota in healthy adults: Temporal analysis reveals individual and common core and relation to intestinal symptoms. PLoS ONE, 6, e23035.

Jostins, L., Ripke, S., Weersma, R. K., Duerr, R. H., McGovern, D. P., Hui, K. Y., Lee, J. C., Schumm, L. P., Sharma, Y., & Anderson, C. A. (2012). Host-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease. Nature, 491, 119–124.

Lamont, R. J., & Hajishengallis, G. (2015). Polymicrobial synergy and dysbiosis in inflammatory disease. Trends in Molecular Medicine, 21(3), 172–183.

Lange, K., Buerger, M., Stallmach, A., & Bruns, T. (2016). Effects of antibiotics on gut microbiota. Digestive Diseases, 34(3), 260–268.

Lin, L., & Zhang, J. (2017). Role of intestinal microbiota and metabolites on gut homeostasis and human diseases. BMC Immunology, 18(1), 2.

Lippert, K., Kedenko, L., Antonielli, L., Kedenko, I., Gemeier, C., Leitner, M., Kautzky-Willer, A., Paulweber, B., & Hackl, E. (2017). Gut microbiota dysbiosis associated with glucose metabolism disorders and the metabolic syndrome in older adults. Beneficial Microbes, 8(4), 545–556.

Liu, Z., Liu, W., Ran, C., Hu, J., & Zhoua, Z. (2016). Abrupt suspension of probiotics administration may increase host pathogen susceptibility by inducing gut dysbiosis. Scientific Reports, 6, 23214.

Lyamin, A. V., Botkin, E. A., & Zhestkov, A. V. (2012). Metodyi vyiyavleniya bioplenok v meditsine: Vozmozhnosti i perspektivyi [Methods of biofilm evaluation: Opportunities and perspectives]. Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 14(1), 17–22 (in Russian).

Marchesi, J. R., Adams, D. H., Fava, F., Hermes, G. D. A., Hirschfield, G. M., Hold, G., Quraishi, M. N., Kinross, J., Smidt, H., Tuohy, K. M., Thomas, L. V., Zoetendal, E. G., & Hart, A. (2015). The gut microbiota and host health: A new clinical frontier. Gut, 65(2), 330–339.

Mayorga Reyes, L., González Vázquez, R., Cruz Arroyo, S. M., Melendez Avalos, A., Reyes Castillo, P. A., Chavaro Pérez, D. A., Ramos Terrones, I., Ramos Ibáñez, N., Rodríguez Magallanes, M. M., Langella, P., Bermúdez Humarán, L., & Azaola Espinosa, A. (2016). Correlation between diet and gut bacteria in a population of young adults. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 67(4), 470–478.

McFarland, L. V. (2014). Use of probiotics to correct dysbiosis of normal microbiota following disease or disruptive events: A systematic review. BMJ Open, 4(8), e005047.

Montandon, S. A., & Jornayvaz, F. R. (2017). Effects of antidiabetic drugs on gut microbiota composition. Genes (Basel), 8(10), E250.

Moreno de LeBlanc de, A., & LeBlanc, J. G. (2014). Effect of probiotic administration on the intestinal microbiota, current knowledge and potential applications. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 20(44), 16518–16528.

Nezgoda, I. I., & Naumenko, O. M. (2011). Dysbakterioz kyshkivnyka u ditey: Problemni pytannya, suchasni metody diahnostyky [Intestinal dysbacteriosis in children: Problem issues, modern methods of diagnosis]. Klinichna immunolohiia. Alerholohiia. Infektolohiia, 5, 29–32 (in Ukrainian).

Pallister, T., & Spector, T. D. (2016). Food: A new form of personalised (gut microbiome) medicine for chronic diseases? Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 109(9), 331–336.

Schippa, S., & Conte, M. P. (2014). Dysbiotic events in gut microbiota: Impact on human health. Nutrients, 6(12), 5786–5805.

Shaw, K. A., Bertha, M., Hofmekler, T., Chopra, P., Vatanen, T., Srivatsa, A., Prince, J., Kumar, A., Sauer, C., Zwick, M. E., Satten, G. A., Kostic, A. D., Mulle, J. G., Xavier, R. J., & Kugathasan, S. (2016). Dysbiosis, inflammation, and response to treatment: a longitudinal study of pediatric subjects with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease. Genome Medicine, 8(1), 75.

Takiishi, T., Fenero, C. I. M., & Câmara, N. O. S. (2017). Intestinal barrier and gut microbiota: Shaping our immune responses throughout life. Tissue Barriers, e1373208.

Tchebotar, I. V., & Guryev, E. L. (2012). Laboratornaya diagnostika klinicheski znachimyih bioplyonochnyih protsessov [Laboratory diagnostics of clinically significant microbial biofilms]. Voprosy Diagnostiki v Pediatrii, 4, 15–20 (in Russian).

Thursby, E., & Juge, N. (2017). Introduction to the human gut microbiota. Biochemical Journal, 474(11), 1823–1836.

Walker, M. M. (2016). Inflammation, genetics, dysbiosis, and the environment: New paradigms for diagnosis in complex chronic gut syndromes. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 50(Suppl. 1), S4–5.

Zhang, Y. J., Li, S., Gan, R. Y., Zhou, T., Xu, D. P., & Li, H. B. (2015). Impacts of gut bacteria on human health and diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16(4), 7493–7519.

How to Cite
Shevchenko, T. M., Rozhnyeva, I. L., Dyklenko, T. V., & Voronkova, O. S. (2017). Comparative characteristics of the composition of microbial associations of the gastrointestinal tract in humans in the norm and during dysbiosis. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(4), 497–500.