Influence of mineral substances on the synthesis of volatile organic compounds by Pleurotus ostreatus in the process of solid phase cultivation

Keywords: aroma compounds, sensory analysis, UV spectroscopy, iron, calcium, selenium


Mineral substances play an important role in ensuring high-grade growth and high organoleptic quality of the fruit bodies of basidiomycetes. In the process of solid-phase cultivation of the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Kumm. the lignocellulosic substrates were enriched with mineral additives of calcium, iron and selenium. Their influence on the synthesis of volatile aroma compounds was investigated by the methods of sensory profile analysis and ultraviolet spectroscopy. Mineral additives in the form of CaCl2, FeSO2•7H2O and Na2SeO3 salts were added to the substrate (sunflower husk, barley straw) before sterilization in concentrations that correspond to the physiological needs of the mushrooms. When carrying out a sensory profile analysis of dried fruit bodies, the following attributes of the flavor were determined: mushroom, woody, sweet, herbaceous, fish, meat, floral, earthy, acidic, putrescent. The conducted profile analysis showed an unequal dependence of the effect of mineral additives for each of the P. ostreatus strains. For IBK-549 and IBK-1535, an increase in the intensity of mushroom notes of aroma was observed with the addition of calcium and selenium to the husks, and for IBK-551, this was observed with the addition of iron and selenium to both substrates. The volatile aroma compounds were extracted with hexane at boiling point for 30 minutes. Absorption spectra were recorded in the wavelength range 200–330 nm. The examined extracts had light absorption maxima at 200–210 and 260–300 nm, which is typical for solutions of unsaturated compounds that have non-conjugated double bonds, saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and ketones. Additions of iron to the substrates increased the intensity of light absorption in comparison with the control. Additions of selenium selectively influenced different strains, and calcium ions did not significantly affect the change in the intensity of light absorption, and therefore the synthesis of volatile compounds by mushrooms. The level of synthesis of aroma-forming substances was higher when cultivating fungi on sunflower husks than on barley straw. This was confirmed both by the obtained aroma profiles and by the recorded absorption spectra of all examined strains. The study showed the possibility of influencing the organoleptic qualities of P. ostreatus fruiting bodies during solid-phase cultivation by supplementing the composition of lignocellulosic substrates with various mineral additives. 


Al-Maali, G. A. (2015). Vplyv cytrativ metaliv, otrymanyh metodom akvananothenologii’, na rist shtamiv likars’kyh makromicetiv Ganoderma lucidum 1900 i Trametes versicolor 353 [The influence of metal citrates obtained by aquananotechnology on growth of the strains of medical macromycetes Ganoderma lucidum 1900 and Trametes versicolor 353]. Ukrainian Botanical Journal, 72(4), 393–397 (in Ukrainian).

Bekker, Z. J. (1988). Fiziologija i biohimija gribov [Physiology and biochemistry of fungi]. Izdatel’stvo Moskovskogo Universiteta, Moscow (in Russian).

Bellettini, M. B., Fiorda, F. A., Maieves, H. A., Teixeira, G. L., Avila, S., Hornung, P. S., Junior, A. M., & Ribani, R. H. (2016). Factors affecting mushroom Pleurotus spp. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 1–14.

Buhalo, A. S. (1988). Vysshie s’edobnye bazidiomicety v chistoj kul’ture [Higher edible basidiomycetes in pure culture]. Naukova Dumka, Kiev (in Russian).

Buhalo, A. S., Bis’ko, N. A., Solomko, J. F., & Bilaj, V. T. (2004). Kul’tivirovanie sjedobnyh i lekarstvennyh gribov [The cultivation of edible and medicinal mushrooms]. Chernobyl’interinform, Kyiv (in Russian).

Combet, E., Henderson, J., Eastwood, D. C., & Burton, K. S. (2006). Eight-carbon volatiles in mushrooms and fungi: Properties, analysis, and biosynthesis. Mycoscience, 47, 317–326.

Curvetto, N. R., Figlas, D., Devalis, R., & Delmastro, S. (2002). Growth and productivity of different Pleurotus ostreatus strains on sunflower seed hulls supplemented with N–NH4+ and/or Mn(II). Bioresource Technology, 84,171–176.

El Habbasha, S. F., & Faten, M. I. (2015). Calcium: Physiological function, deficiency and absorption. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 8(12), 196–202.

Gasecka, M., Mleczek, M., Siwulski, M., & Niedzielski, P. (2015). Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus eryngii enriched with selenium and zinc. European Food Research and Technology, 242(5), 723–732.

Golovanov, A. B., Mjagkova, G. Y., & Groza, N. V. (2008). Lipoksigenaznoe okislenie zhirnyh kislot v rastenijah [Lipoxygenase oxidation of fatty acids in plants]. Fine Chemical Technologies, 3(6), 26-33 (in Russian).

Jackson, S. L., & Heath, I. B. (1993). Roles of calcium ions in hyphal tip growth. Microbiological Reviews, 57(2), 367–382.

Nunes, R. G., Luz, J. M., Freitas, R. B., Higuchi, A., Kasuya, M. C., & Vanetti, M. C. (2012). Selenium bioaccumulation in Shiitake mushrooms: A nutritional alternative source of this element. Journal of Food Science, 77(9), C983–C986.

Nyegue, M., Zollo, P.-H. A., Bessiere, J.-M., & Rapior, S. (2003). Volatile components of fresh Pleurotus ostreatus and Termitomyces shimperi from Cameroon. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 6(3), 153–160.

Ostadalova, I. (2012). Biological effects of selenium compounds with a particular attention to the ontogenetic development. Physiological Research, 61, S19–34.

Philpott, C. C., Leidgens, S., & Frey, A. G. (2012). Metabolic remodeling in iron-deficient fungi. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1823, 1509–1520.

Pitt, D., & Ugalde, U. O. (1984). Calcium in fungi. Plant, Sell and Environment, 7(6), 467–475.

Regalado, C. M. (1998). Roles of calcium gradients in hyphal tip growth: A mathematical model. Microbiology, 144, 2771–2782.

Rodina, T. G. (2004). Sensornyj analiz prodovol’stvennyh tovarov [Sensory analysis of food products]. Akademija, Moscow (in Russian).

Savic, M. D., Petrovic, J. P., Klaus, A. S., Niksic, M. P., Rajkovic, M. B., Filipovic, N. R., & Antic-Mladenovic, S. B. (2009). Growth and fruit body formation of Pleurotus ostreatus on media supplemented with inorganic selenium. Zbornik Matice Srpske za Prirodne Nauke, 116, 209–216.

Sil’verstejn, R., Bassler, G., & Morril, T. (1977). Spektrometricheskaja identifikacija organicheskih soedinenij [Spectrometric identification of organic compounds]. Mir, Moscow (in Russian).

Silva, M., Naozuka, J., Luz, J. M., Assuncao, L. S., Oliveira, P. V., Vanetti, M., Bazzolli, D., & Kasuya, M. (2012). Enrichment of Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms with selenium in coffee husks. Food Chemistry, 131, 558–563.

Silva, M., Nunes, M. D., Luz, J. M., & Kasuya, M. C. (2013). Mycelial growth of Pleurotus spp. in Se-enriched culture media. Advances in Microbiology, 3, 11–18.

Velychko, N. A., & Berykashvyly, Z. N. (2008). Himicheskij sostav plodovogo tela griba Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr) Kumm. [Chemical composition of fruit body mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr) Kumm.]. Vestnik Krasnojarskogo Gosudarstvennogo Agrarnogo Universiteta, 4, 274–278 (in Russian).

Vlasenko, K. M., & Kuznecova, O. (2016). Zastosuvannja sensornogo analizu u biotehnologii’ kul’tyvuvannja makromicetiv [The use of sensory analysis in biotechnology of the cultivation of macromycetes]. Visnyk of Dnipropetrovsk University. Biology, Ecology, 24(2), 347–352 (in Ukrainian).

Werner, A. R., & Beelman, R. B. (2002). Growing high-selenium edible and medicinal button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (J. Lge) Imbach) as ingredients for functional foods or dietary supplements. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 4(2), 112–120.

Yokota, M. E., Frison, P. S., Marcante, R. C., Jorge, L. F., Valle, J. S., Dragunski, D. C., Colauto, N. B., & Linde G. A. (2016). Iron translocation in Pleurotus ostreatus basidiocarps: Production, bioavailability, and antioxidant activity. Genetics and Molecular Research, 15(1), 1–10.

Zawirska-Wojtasiak, R., Siwulski, M., Mildner-Szkudlarz, S., & Wasowicz, E. (2009). Studies on the aroma of different species and strains of Pleurotus measured by GH/MS, sensory analysis and electronic nose. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, 8(1), 47–61.

How to Cite
Vlasenko, E. N., Kuznetcova, O. V., & Stepnevskaya, J. V. (2017). Influence of mineral substances on the synthesis of volatile organic compounds by Pleurotus ostreatus in the process of solid phase cultivation. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(4), 489–496.