Dietary energy source affecting fat deposition mechanism, muscle fiber metabolic and overall meat quality

Keywords: poultry, sucrose, thigh meat, lipid oxidation, protein oxidation


A study was conducted to investigate the effect of two dietary energy sources, soy bean oil, and sucrose on regulatory mechanisms of meat preservation. Twenty one day-old Hubbard commercial broilers were randomly allocated into two dietary treatment groups with six replicates per treatment, and four broilers per replicate. All birds were coded for the influence of energy source: fat based diet (FD), and sugar based diet (SD). Formulated grower diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The chickens were slaughtered and then boneless, skinless ground chicken tight meat was prepared. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, and sensory panel evaluation. In addition, meat from the small muscles of the raw thigh was used to evaluate other meat quality characteristics. Proximate analyses showed no significant differences between both dietary treatments on protein, ash and moisture percentage values. Meat samples of the group that was fed FD showed higher significant values of both TBARS and total carbonyl at day 7 of storage time. However, samples of the second group (Fed SD) showed lower values of both ultimate pH and water separation % using raw thigh meat. The effect of FD treatment on the meat composition appeared clearly especially on fat percentage content. In addition, meat samples obtained from chickens fed SD showed better significant values of the overall acceptability attribute. According to the current findings, sucrose could be an excellent alternative to oil in dietary broilers which improved the meat preservation bio-system, and post-mortem storage stability. 


Ahn, D. U., & Lee, E. J. (2002). Production of off-odor volatiles from liposome-containing amino acid homopolymers by irradiation. Journal of Food Science, 67(7), 2659–2665.

Ahn, D. U., Nam, K. C., & Lee, E. J. (2009). Lipid oxidation and flavor. In: Du, M., & McCormick, R. J. (Eds.). Applied muscle biology and meat science. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Baco Raton, FL. Cap 12, pp. 227–246.

Ahn, D. U., Olson, D. G., Jo, C., Chen, X., Wu, C., & Lee, J. I. (1998). Effect of muscle type, packaging, and irradiation on lipid oxidation, volatile production and color in raw pork patties. Meat Science, 49, 27–39.

Alao, S. J., & Balnave, D. (1984). Growth and carcass composition of broiler fed sunflower and olive oil. British Poultry Science, 25, 209–219.

Aletor, V. A., Hamid, I. I., Nieb, E., & Pfeffer, E. (2000). Low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets in broiler chickens: Effects on performance, carcass characteristics, whole-body composition and efficiencies of nutrient utilization. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 80(5), 547–554.

Al-Hijazeen, M., Lee, E. J., Mendonca, A., & Ahn, D. U. (2016). Effect of oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) on the storage stability and quality parameters of ground chicken breast meat. Antioxidant (MDPI), 5, 18.

AOAC (2003). Official methods of Analysis (17th ed., 2nd revision). Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Virginia, USA.

Baiao, N. C., & Lara, L. J. C. (2005). Oil and fat in broiler nutrition. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 7, 129–141.

Beski, S. S. M., Swick, R. A., & Lji, P. A. (2015). Specialized protein products in broiler chicken nutrition: A review. Animal Nutrition, 1(2), 47–53.

Chen, W., Guo, Y. M., Huang, Y. Q., Shi, Y. H., Zhang, C. X., & Wang, J. W. (2012). Effect of energy restriction on growth, slaughter performance, serum biochemical parameters and Lpin2/WDTC1 mRNA expression of broiler in the later phase. Journal of Poultry Science, 49, 12–19.

Cheng, Q., & Sun, D. W. (2008). Factors affecting the water holding capacity of red meat products: A review of recent research advances. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 48(2), 137–159.

Chouliara, E., Karatapanis, A., Savvaidis, I. N., & Kontominas, M. G. (2007). Combined effect of oregano essential oil and modified atmosphere packaging on shelf-life extension of fresh chicken breast meat, stored at 4 C. Food Microbiology, 24, 607–617.

Crespo, N., & Esteve-Garcia, E. (2002). Nutrient and fatty acid deposition in broilers fed different fatty acid profiles. Poultry Science, 81, 1533–1542.

De Groote, G., Reyntens, N., & Amich-Gali, J. (1971). Fat studies. The metabolic efficiency of energy utilization of glucose, soybean oil and different animal fats by growing chickens. Poultry Science, 50, 808–818.

Den Hertog-Meischke, M. J. A., Van Laack, R. J. L. M., & Smulders, F. J. M. (1997). The water-holding capacity of fresh meat. Veterinary Quarterly, 19(4), 175–181.

Du, M., & Ahn, D. U. (2002). Effect of antioxidant on the quality of irradiated sausages prepared with Turkey thigh meat. Poultry Science, 81, 1251–1256.

Du, M., Ahn, D. U., Nam, K. C., & Sell, J. L. (2000). Influence of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the volatile, color and lipid oxidation of irradiated raw chicken meat. Meat Science, 56, 387–395.

Ellis, M., & Mckeith, F. K. (1999). Effect of nutrition on meat quality. Non-rumi nant nutrition and meat quality. 2nd Annual Reciprocal Meat Conference, 52, 15–23.

Estevez, M. (2011). Protein carbonyls in meat system: A review. Meat Science, 89, 259–279.

Estevez, M., Ventanas, S., & Cava, R. (2005). Protein oxidation in frankfurters with increasing levels of added rosemary essential oil: Effect on color and texture deterioration. Journal of Food Science, 70, 427–432.

Fouad, A. M., & El-Senousey, H. K. (2014). Nutritional factors affecting abdominal fat deposition in poultry: A Review. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 27(7), 1057–1068.

Gray, J. I., & Monahan, F. J. (1992). Measurement of lipid oxidation in meat and meat products. Trend in Food Science and Technology, 3, 315–319.

Gray, J. I., Gomaa, E. A., & Buckley, D. J. (1996). Oxidative quality and shelf life of meats. Meat Science, 43, 111–123.

Greenhaff, P. L., Gleeson, M., & Maughan, R. J. (1988). The effect of diet on muscle pH and metabolism during high intensity exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 57(5), 531–539.

Hall, G. (1987). Interactions between products of lipid oxidation and proteins. Food Science and Technology Today, 1, 155–158.

Hashim, I. B., Hussein, A. S., & Afifi, H. S. (2013). Quality of breast and thigh meats when broilers are fed rations containing graded levels of sugar syrup. Poultry Science, 92(8), 2195–2200.

Hermier, D. (1997). Lipoprotein metabolism and fattening in poultry. Journal of Nutrition, 127, 805–808.

Huff-Lonergan, E., & Lonergan, S. M. (2005). Mechanisms of water-holding ca pacity of meat: The role of postmortem biochemical and structural changes. Meat Science, 71(1), 194–204.

Hussein, A. S., Al Ghurair, J., John, P. G. K., Habib, H. M., & Sulaiman, M. (2016). Graded levels of sugar syrup in broiler rations and its effect on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters. Animal Nutrition, 2, 180–185.

Jensen, C., Guidera, J., Skovgaard, I. M., Staun, H., Skibstead, L. H., Jensen, S. K., Moller, A. J., Bukley, J., & Bertelsen, G. (1997). Effect of dietary α-tocophe rol deposition in porcine m. psoas major and m. longissimus dorsi and on drip loss, colour stability of pork meat. Meat Science, 45(4), 491–500.

Krajmalnik-Brown, R., Iihan, Z., Kang, D., & Dibaise, J. K. (2012). Effect of gut microbes on nutrient absorption and energy regulation. Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 27(2), 201–214.

Lee, K., Everts, H., Kappert, H., Yeom, K., & Beynen, C. (2003). Dietary carvacrol lowers body weight gain but improves feed conversion in female broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 12, 394–399.

Leeson, S., & Summers, J. D. (2001). Nutrition of the chicken. 4th edition. M. L. Scott and Associates, Ithaca, N.Y.

Levine, R. L., Williams, J. A., Stadtman, E. R., & Shacter, E. (1994). Methods in Enzymology, 233, 346–357.

Li, Y., Yu, C., Li, J., Zhang, L., Gao, F., & Zhou, G. (2017). Effect of dietary energy sources on early postmortem muscle metabolism of finishing pigs. Asian-Australians Journal of Animal Science, in press.

Lund, M. N., Hviid, M. S., Claudi-Magnussen, C., & Skibsted, L. H. (2008). Effects of dietary soybean oil on lipid and protein oxidation in pork patties during chill storage. Meat Science, 79, 727–733.

Melton, S. L. (1990). Effect of feed on flavor of red meat: A review. Journal of Animal Science, 68(12), 4421–4435.

Min, B. R., Nam, K. C., Cordray, J. C., & Ahn, D. U. (2008). Factors affecting oxidative stability of pork, beef, and chicken meat. Animal Industry Report, AS654, ASL R2257.

Moran, E. T., & Bilgili, S. F. (1990). Processing losses, carcass quality, and meat yields of broiler chickens receiving diets marginally deficient to adequate in lysine prior to marketing. Poultry Science, 69(4), 702–710.

Murphy, R. Y., & Marks, B. P. (2000). Effect of meat temperature on proteins, texture and cook loss for ground chicken breast patties. Poultry Science, 79, 99–104.

Rababah, T., Hettiarachchy, N. S., Horax, R., Cho, M. J., Davis, B., & Dicksons, J. (2006). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and volatile compounds in chicken breast meat infused with plant extracts and subjected to electron beam irradiation. Poultry Science, 85, 1107–1113.

Rezaei, M., & Hajati, H. (2010). Effect of diet dilution at early age on performance, carcass characteristics and blood parameters of broiler chicks. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 9, 93–100.

Savell, J. W., & Cross, H. R. (1988). Technological option to improve the nutritio nal attributes of animal product options in the marketplace. Washington (DC): National Academic Press (US). The role of fat in the palatability of beef, pork, and lamb. pp. 1–94.

Sebranek, J. G., Lonergan, S. M., King-Brink, M., & Larson, E. (2001). Meat science and processing. Lab-Manual. 3rd ed. Zenda, WI, Peerage Press. pp. 141–143.

Shermer, W. D. (1990). Effects of oxidation on the quality of ingredients and feed of poultry. In: 37º Maryland Nutrition Conference. Maryland, EUA.

Sun, W. Q., Zhang, Y. J., Zhou, G. H., Xu, X. L., & Peng, Z. Q. (2010). Effect of apple polyphenol on oxidative stability of sliced cooked cured beef and pork hams during chilled storage. Journal of Muscle Food, 21, 722–737.

Tanaka, K., Ohyani, S., & Shigeno, K. (1983). Effect of increasing dietary energy on hepatic lipogenesis in growing chicks. II. Increasing energy by fat or protein supplementation. Poultry Science, 62, 452–458.

Tavarez, M. A., Boler, D. D., Bess, K. N., Zhao, J., Yan, F., Dilger, A. C., McKeith, F. K., & Killefer, J. (2011). Effect of antioxidant inclusion and oil quality on broiler performance, meat quality, and lipid oxidation. Poultry Science, 90(4), 922–930.

Waheed, A., Ahmed, T., Yousaf, A., & Zaefer, I. J. (2004). Effect of various levels of fat and antioxidant on the quality of broiler rations stored at high temperature for different periods. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 24(2), 70–75.

Wang, A. (2014). The effects of different feeding program and inclusion of glyce rol, glucose or sucrose in broiler starter diets on growth performance and in testinal development. Master thesis. Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.

Wu, L., Guo, X., & Fang, Y. (2012). Effect of diet dilution ratio at early age on growth performance, carcass characteristics and hepatic lipogensis of Pekin ducks. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 14, 43–49.

Xiong, Y. L. (2000). Protein oxidation and implications for muscle food quality. In: Decker, E. A., Faustman, C., & Lopez-Bote, C. J. (Eds.), Antioxidants in muscle foods. Wiley, New Yourk. pp. 85–111.

Yadalam, S. (2005). Modeling broiler energy and protein metabolism. PhD thesis. Faculty of the Graduate College, Oklahoma State University, USA.

Zelenka, W., Knaus, W., Aichinger, F., & Lettner, F. (1997). Effects of different dietary fat sources on performance and carcass characteristics of broilers. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 66, 63–73.

How to Cite
Al-Hijazeen, M., & Al-Rabadi, G. (2017). Dietary energy source affecting fat deposition mechanism, muscle fiber metabolic and overall meat quality. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(3), 433-437.