The influence of a mineral-vitamin premix on the metabolism of pregnant horses with microelemetosis

Keywords: mares, blood, premix, erythropoiesis, cobalt, copper, retinol, tocopherol, calcium, phosphorus


The article presents data on research into the influence of a mineral-vitamin premix on the clinical condition, erythropoiesis and the metabolism (macro- and micro-elemental, vitaminic, proteinaceous, enzymic) of Hucul breed mares in the last trimester of pregnancy. The Marmix premix contains: vitamins – А, D3, Е, В1, В2, В12, pantothenic and ascorbic acids, niacin, biotin; nonorganic compounds of microelements – sulphate of cobalt, copper, zinc, iron, manganese; potassium iodide, sodium selenite; amino acids – lysine, threonine, methionine.The usage of the mineral-vitaminic premix Marmix on pregnant mares during 60 days causes recovery of clinical status, erythropoiesis, raises the level of the cobalt (by 45.9%) and copper (by 2.15 times), normalizes the calcium-phosphorus ratio, raises the phosphorus level in the blood (by 17.7%), raises vitamin А (by 2.5 times) and tocopherol (by 2.02 times), total protein (by 27.7%), decreases the level of urea (by 42.2%), activity of AspAT [aspartate transaminase or aspartate aminotransferase] (by 42.9%) and AlAT [alanine transaminase] (by 44.9%) and alkaline phosphatase (by 43.7%). The research conducted contributes to improvements in the study of the pathogenesis of microelementosis of mares and develops an efficient way of treating and preventing the development of microelementosis among these animals. 


Adamu, L., Noraniza, M. A., Rasedee, A., & Bashir, А. (2010). Effects of race distance on physical, hematological and biochemical parameters of endurance horses. American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 5(4), 244–248.

Anderson, M. G. (1975). The influence of exercise on serum enzyme levels in the horse. Equine Veterinary Journal, 7, 160–165.

Barrelet, A., & Ricketts, S. (2002). Hematology and blood biochemistry in the horse: A guide to interpretation. In Practice, 6, 318–327.

Barton, M., Williamson, L., & Jacks, S. (2003). Body weight, hematologic findings, and serum and plasma biochemical findings of horses competing in a 48-, 83-, or 159-km endurance ride under similar terrain and weather conditions. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 64, 746–753.

Bayeva, T. I., & Zhegunov, G. F. (2016). Vplyv fizychnoho ta emotsiinoho navantazhennia na metabolichnyi profil syrovatky krovi sportyvnykh konei [Influence of physical and emotional activity on the metabolic profile of blood serum of race horses]. Visnyk of Dnipropetrovsk University. Biology, Ecology. 24(2), 484–488 (in Ukrainian).

Bazzano, M., Giannetto, C., Fazio, F., & Bazzano, M. (2014). Metabolic profile of broodmares during late pregnancy and early post-partum. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 49, 947–953.

Clarke, A. F., Madelin, T. M., & Allpress, R. G. (1987). The relationship of air hygiene in stables to lower airway disease and pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia in two groups of Thoroughbred horses. Equine Veterinary Journal, 19(6), 524–530.

Fielding, C. L., Magdesian, K. G., Rhodes, D. M., Meier, C. A., & Higgins, J. C. (2009). Clinical and biochemical abnormalities in endurance horses eliminated from competition for medical complications and requiring emergency medical treatment: 30 cases (2005–2006). Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, 19(5), 473–478.

Gerber, V., Tessier, C., & Marti, E. (2014). Genetics of upper and lower airway diseases in the horse. Equine Veterinary Journal, 47(4), 390–397.

Golovach, M. J., Ganynec’, P. P., & Golovach, M. M. (2005). Vykorystannja konej gucul’s’koi’ porody ta i’h pomisej dlja riznyh form gipoterapii’ [Use of Hucul purebred and hybrid horses for various forms of hippotherapy]. Sil’s’kyj Gospodar, 7–8, 16–18 (in Ukrainian).

Gutyj, B. V., Murs’ka, S. D., Gufrij, D. F., Hariv, I. I., Levkivs’ka, N. D., Nazaruk, N. V., Gajdjuk, M. B., Pryjma, O. B., Bilyk, O. J., & Guta, Z. A. (2016). Vplyv kadmiievoho navantazhennia na systemu antyoksydantnoho zakhystu orhanizmu buhaitsiv [Influence of cadmium loading on the state of the antioxidant system in the organism of bulls]. Visnyk of Dnipropetrovsk University. Biology, Ecology, 24(1), 96–102.

Gutyj, B., Lavryshyn, Y., Binkevych, V., Binkevych, O., Paladischuk, О., Strons’kyj, J., & Hariv, I. (2016). Influence of Metisevit on the activity of enzyme and nonenzyme link of antioxidant protection under the bull’s body cadmium loading. Scientific Messenger LNUVMBT named after S. Z. Gzhytskyj, 18(2), 52–58.

Hinchcliff, K. W., Lauderdale, M. A., Dutson, J., Geor, R. J., Lacombe, V. A., & Taylor, L. E. (2002). High intensity exercise conditioning increases accumulated oxygen deficit of horses. Equine Veterinary Journal, 34(1), 9–16.

Hunter, D., De Lange, M., & Snjeder, H. (2001). Genetic contribution to bone metabolism, calcium excretion and vitamin D and parathyroid hormone regulation. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 16, 371–378.

Khariv, M. I., & Gutyj, B. V. (2016). Vplyv liposomalnoho preparatu Butaintervit na proteinsyntezuvalnu funktsiiu pechinky shchuriv za otruiennia tetrakhlor-metanom [Influence of the liposomal preparation Butaintervite on protein synthesis function in the livers of rats under the influence of carbon tetrachloride poisoning]. Visnyk of Dnipropetrovsk University. Biology, Medicine, 7(2), 123–126 (in Ukrainian).

Khariv, M., Gutyj, B., Butsyak, V., & Khariv, I. (2016). Hematolohichni pokaznyky orhanizmu shchuriv za umov oksydatsiinoho stresu ta za dii liposomalnoho preparatu [Hematological indices of rat organisms under conditions of oxidative stress and liposomal preparation action]. Biological Bulletin of Bogdan Chmelnitskiy Melitopol State Pedagogical University, 6(1), 276–289 (in Ukrainian).

Kryvda, M. (2016). Analiz porushen reproduktsiinoi funktsii kobyl za latentnoho perebihu rynopnevmonii [Analysis of the disorders in reproductive function of mares with latent form of the herpesvirus type-1]. Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, 18(3), 167–170 (in Ukrainian).

Lacerda, L., Campos, R., & Sperb, M. (2006). Hematologic and biochemical parameters in three high performance horse breeds from southern Brazil. Archives of Veterinary Science, 11, 40–44.

Lavryshyn, Y. Y., Varkholyak, I. S., Martyschuk, T. V., Guta, Z. А., Ivankiv, L. B., Paladischuk, О. R., Murska, S. D., Gutyj, B. V., & Gufriy, D. F. (2016). Biolohichne znachennia systemy antyoksydantnoho zakhystu orhanizmu tvaryn [The biological significance of the antioxidant defense system of animals’ organisms]. Scientific Messenger LNUVMBT named after S. Z. Gzhytskyj, 18(2), 100–111 (in Ukrainian).

Lindner, A., & Hatzipanagiotou, A. (1998). Effect of age and of performance parameters on CK, LDH and AST activities in plasma of standardbred horses during exercise. Pferdeheilkunde, 14, 456–460.

Lindner, A., Mosen, H., Kissenbeck, S., Fuhrmann, H., & Sallman, H. P. (2009). Effect of blood lactate-guided conditioning of horses with exercise of differing durations and intensities on heart rate and biochemical parameters. Journal of Animal Science, 87(10), 3211–3217.

Lucenko, M. V., & Petrushko, M. P. (2015). Vplyv fizychnoho navantazhennia na dynamiku pokaznykiv krovi konei riznoho viku [Influence of physical activity on dynamics of blood indices of horses of different ages]. Odesa National University Herald. Biology, 20(1), 178–185 (in Ukrainian).

Martyshuk, T. V., Gutyj, B. V., & Vishchur, O. I. (2016). Riven produktiv perekysnoho okysnennia lipidiv u krovi shchuriv za umov oksydatsiinoho stresu ta za dii liposomalnoho preparatu “Butaselmevit” [Level of lipid peroxidation products in the blood of rats under the influence of oxidative stress and under the action of liposomal preparation of “Butaselmevit”]. Biological Bulletin of Bogdan Chmelnitskiy Melitopol State Pedagogical University, 6(2), 22–27 (in Ukrainian).

Muñoz, A., Riber, C., Trigo, P., & Castejón, F. (2012). Age- and gender-related variations in hematology, clinical biochemistry, and hormones in Spanish fillies and colts. Research in Veterinary Science, 93, 943–949.

Padalino, B., Raidal, S., & Carter, N. (2017). Immunological, clinical, haematological and oxidative responses to long distance transportation in horses. Research in Veterinary Science, 115, 78–87.

Piddubnjak, O. V., & Golovaha, V. I. (2008). Porivnjal’na harakterystyka pokaznykiv gemopoezu u konej [Comparative characteristics of indicators of hemopoiesis in horses]. Visnyk Bilocerkivs’kogo Derzhavnogo Agrarnogo Universytetu, 56, 135–139 (in Ukrainian).

Reitman, S., & Frankel, S. (1957). A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 164(1), 321–325.

Rud’ko, G. I., & Macijevs’ka, O. O. (2009). Doslidzhennja gidrogeohimichnyh pokaznykiv pidzemnoi’ gidrosfery zahidnyh regioniv Ukrai’ny na vmist mikroelementiv [Research into hydrogeochemical indicators of the underground hydrosphere in western regions of Ukraine for content of microelements]. Visnyk Nacional’nogo Universytetu “L’vivs’ka politehnika”, 655, 250–256 (in Ukrainian).

Scantlebury, C. E., Archer, D. C., Proudman, C. J., & Pinchbeck, G. L. (2014). Management and horse-level risk factors for recurrent colic in the UK general equine practice population. Equine Veterinary Journal, 47(2), 202–206.

Shherbatyj, A. R., & Slivins’ka, L. G. (2013). Diagnostyka mikroelementoziv kobyl u zahidnij biogeohimichnij zoni Ukrai’ny [Diagnosis of microelementosis of mares from the western biogeochemical zone of Ukraine]. Veterynarna Medycyna Ukrai’ny, 206, 25‒28 (in Ukrainian).

Shherbatyj, A. R., Slivins’ka, L. G., & Maksymovych I. A. (2013). Funkcional’nyj stan pechinky ta nyrok u kobyl za gipokobal’tozu i gipokuprozu [Functional condition of the liver and kidneys of mares with hypocobaltosis and hypocuprosis]. Scientific Messenger LNUVMBT named after S. Z. Gzhytskyj, 55, 257–261 (in Ukrainian).

Stefurak, J. P. (2004). Stan ta perspektyvy rozvedennja gucul’s’koi’ porody konej na Prykarpatti [Condition and perspectives for breeding Hucul horses in the Precarpathian region]. Naukovyj Visnyk Ukrai’ns’kogo Derzhavnogo Liso-tehnichnogo Universytetu, 14(3), 456–463 (in Ukrainian).

Takasu, M., Nagatani, N., & Tozaki, T. (2013). Hematological and biochemical reference values for the endangered Kiso horse. Journal of Equine Science, 24(4), 75–78.

Tkachev, A. V., Sheremetа, V. I., & Tkachevа, О. L. (2016). Vplyv chasu shtuchnoho osimeninnia vidnosno ovuliatsii na zaplidniuvanist kobyl [Influence of timing of artificial insemination relative to ovulation on conception in mares]. Scientific Messenger LNUVMBT named after S. Z. Gzhytskyj, 18(2), 241–244.

Vysochans’ka, L. J. (2010). Osoblyvosti ta ekonomichna efektyvnist’ vykorystannja konej u gospodarstvah usih form vlasnosti Ivano-Frankivshhyny [Peculiarities and economic effectiveness of using horses on farms under all types of ownership in Ivano-Frankovsk region]. Innovacijna Ekonomika, 5, 48–50 (in Ukrainian).

Wingfield, N. J. (1984). Horse ailments and health care: A practical horse guide Colin Vogel. Equine Veterinary Journal, 16(1), 52.

Wood, D. R. (2004). Veterinary laboratory medicine, interpretation and diagnosis, 3rd edition. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 33(3), 182–182.

How to Cite
Shcherbatyy, A. R., Slivinska, L. G., Gutyj, B. V., Golovakha, V. I., Piddubnyak, O. V., & Fedorovuch, V. L. (2017). The influence of a mineral-vitamin premix on the metabolism of pregnant horses with microelemetosis. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(2), 293-298.