Changes in the viability of Strongyloides ransomi larvae (Nematoda, Rhabditida) under the influence of synthetic flavourings

  • A. A. Boyko Dnipropetrovsk State Agrarian-Economic University
  • V. V. Brygadyrenko Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University
Keywords: нематоды, противопаразитарная активность, benzaldehyde, citral, L-linalool, D-limonene, β-ionone


One of the most common nematodes of pigs globally is Strongyloides ransomi Schwartz and Alicata 1930. It usually causes aggravation of physiological indicators of its hosts and damage to their immune system. Also it is a good modelling object for the evaluation of the antiparasitic activity of new antihelminthic drugs. We conducted laboratory experiments to assess the effect of flavouring additives with flower odour (benzaldehyde, citral, D-limonene and β-ionone) upon the viability of S. ransomi larvae. The mortality rate was calculated for 24 hours exposure at four concentrations of each substance (10, 1, 0.1 и 0.01 g/l) with eight replications. The lowest LD50 values were obtained for citral (97 mg/l) and benzaldehyde (142 mg/l). These substances are recommended for further evaluation of their antihelminthic effect in experiments using laboratory animals. Unlike other substances, the effect of β-ionone and D-limonene even at a concentration of 10 g/l after 24 hours caused the death of <50% of S. ransomi larvae. The study of flavouring additives with flowery odour, which are permitted to be used in food for humans and also to be used in cosmetics, is a promising field for research aimed at the development of new antiparasitic drugs. 


Amborabe, B.-E., Fleurat-Lessard, P., Chollet, J. F., & Roblin, G. (2002). Antifungal effects of salicylic acid and other benzoic acid derivatives towards Eutypa lata: Structure–activity relationship. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 40, 1051–1060.

Beerse, P. W., Biedermann, K. A., Page, S. H., Mobley, M. J., & Morgan, J. M. (2001). Antimicrobial compositions comprising a benzoic acid analog and a metal salt. U.S. Patent No. 6294186. Lybertyville, IL, USA.

Belkind, B. A., Shammo, B., Dickenson, R., Rehberger, L. A., & Heiman, D. F. (2013). Cinnamaldehyde and diallyl disulfide formulations and methods of use. U.S. Patent No. 20130018107. Libertyville, IL, USA.

Bell, M. (1990). Insecticidal aqueous-based microemulsion compositions. U.S. Patent No. 4904695. Stamford, CT, USA.

Belletti, N., Kamdem, S. S., Tabanelli, G., Lanciotti, R., & Gardini, F. (2010). Modeling of combined effects of citral, linalool and β-pinene used against Saccharomyces cerevisiae in citrus-based beverages subjected to a mild heat treatment. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 136(3), 283–289. >>

Boyko, O. O., Zazharska, N. M., & Brygadyrenko, V. V. (2016). The influence of the extent of infestation by helminths upon changes in body weight of sheep in Ukraine. Visnyk of Dnipropetrovsk University. Biology, Ecology, 24(1), 3–7. >>

Burke, J. M., Wells, A., Casey, P., & Kaplan, R. M. (2009). Herbal dewormer fails to control gastrointestinal nematodes in goats. Veterinary Parasitology, 160(1–2), 168–170. >>

Charlier, J., Duchateau, L., Claerebout, E., Williams, D., & Vercruysse, J. (2007). Associations between anti-Fasciola hepatica antibody levels in bulk-tank milk samples and production parameters in dairy herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 78(1), 57–66. >>

Cheng, S.-S., Liu, J.-Y., Huang, C.-G., Hsui, Y.-R., Chen, W.-J., & Chang, S.-T. (2009). Insecticidal activities of leaf essential oils from Cinnamomum osmophloeum against three mosquito species. Bioresource Technology, 100, 457–464. >>

Chiang, L.-C., Ng, L.-T., Cheng, P.-W., Chiang, W., & Lin, C.-C. (2005). Antiviral activities of extracts and selected pure constituents of Ocimum basilicum. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 32(10), 811–816. >>

Cringoli, G., Veneziano, V., Jackson, F., Vercruysse, J., Greer, A. W., Fedele, V., Mezzino, L., & Rinaldi, L. (2008). Effects of strategic anthelmintic treatments on the milk production of dairy sheep naturally infected by gastrointestinal strongyles. Veterinary Parasitology, 156(3–4), 340–345. >>

Eysker, M., Boerdam, G. A., Hollanders, W., & Verheijden, J. H. M. (1994). The prevalence of Isospora suis and Strongyloides ransomi in suckling piglets in the Netherlands. Veterinary Quarterly, 16(4), 203–205. >>

Faye, D., Leak, S., Nouala, S., Fall, A., Losson, B., & Geerts, S. (2003). Effects of gastrointestinal helminth infections and plane of nutrition on the health and productivity of F1 (West African Dwarf × Sahelian) goat crosses in The Gambia. Small Ruminant Research, 50(1–2), 153–161. >>

Gopalakrishnan, S., Chitra, T. A., Aruna, A., & Chenthilnathan, A. (2012). Development of RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of ambroxol hydrochloride, cetirizine hydrochloride and antimicrobial preservatives in combined dosage form. Scholars Research Library, Der Pharma Chemica, 4(3), 1003–1015.

Ishiwatari, S., Suzuki, T., Hitomi, T., Yoshino, T., Matsukuma, S., & Tsuji, T. (2007). Effects of methyl paraben on skin keratinocytes. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 27, 1–9. >>

Joshi, S. D., Vagdevi, H. M., Vaidya, V. P., & Gadaginamath, G. S. (2008). Synthesis of new 4-pyrrol-1-yl benzoic acid hydrazide analogs and some derived oxadiazole, triazole and pyrrole ring systems: A novel class of potential antibacterial and antitubercular agents. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 43, 1989–1996. >>

Knecht, D., Popiołek, M., & Zaleśny, G. (2011). Does meatiness of pigs depend on the level of gastro-intestinal parasites infection? Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 99(2–4), 234–239. >>

Knoblauch, C., & Fry, K. (2011). Non-toxic insecticide. U.S. Patent No. 7956092. Edmonton, Alberta, CA, USA.

Kromidas, L., Perrier, E., Flanagan, J., Rivero, R., & Bonnet, I. (2006). Release of antimicrobial actives from microcapsules by the action of axillary bacteria. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 28, 103–108.

Lee, E.-J., Kim, J.-R., Choi, D.-R., & Ahn, Y.-J. (2008). Toxicity of cassia and cinnamon oil compounds and cinnamaldehyde-related compounds to Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 101(6), 1960–1966.

Lu, C. D., Gangyi, X., & Kawas, J. R. (2010). Organic goat production, processing and marketing: Opportunities, challenges and outlook. Small Ruminant Research, 89(2–3), 102–109. >>

Lua, C. D., Gangyi, X., & Kawasc, J. R. (2010). Organic goat production, processing and marketing: Opportunities, challenges and outlook. Small Ruminant Research, 89, 102–109. >>

Maslova, E. N., Sidorova, K. А., Аntropov, V. А., & Dragich, O. А. (2015). Otsenka tyazhesti techeniya bolezni pri parazitozakh svinej [Assessment of the severity of the disease in parasitic diseases of pigs]. Modern Problems of Science and Education, 3, 1–8 (in Russian).

Na, Y. E., Kim, S.-I., Bang, H.-S., Kim, B.-S., & Ahn, Y.-J. (2011). Fumigant toxicity of cassia and cinnamon oils and cinnamaldehyde and structurally related compounds to Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae). Veterinary Parasitology, 178, 324–329. >>

Ponamar, S. І., Shendrik, L. І., Shendrik, C. M., Gugosyan, Y. А., & Shendrik, І. M. (2014a). Izmenenie gematologicheskikh pokazatelej do i posle leche¬niya telyat pri strongiloidoze [Changes in hematology parameters before and after treatment of calves reached strongyloidiasis]. Science and Technology Bulletin of Scientific Research Center for Biosafety and Environmental Control of Agro-Industrial Complex, 2(2), 112–118 (in Ukrainian).

Ponomar, S. I., Goncharenko, V. P., Kruchinenko, O. V., & Shendrik, C. N. (2014b). Ehffektivnost’ kompleksnogo podkhoda pri postanovke diagnoza na strongiloidoz [Effectiveness of the integrated approach in the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis]. Scientific Messenger of Veterinary Medicine, 13, 190–193 (in Ukrainian).

Ponomar, S. I., Soroka, N. M., & Ponomar, Z. S. (2013). Kompleksnaya ehtiotropnaya terapiya svinej pri nematodozakh [Complex ethiotropic therapy for pigs infected by nematodoses]. Veterinary, 2, 29–31 (in Russian).

Posey, R., Culbertson, E. C., & Westermeier, J. C. (2005). Clear barrier coating and coated film. U.S. Patent No. 6911255. Greer, SC, USA.

Rahmann, G., & Seip, H. (2006). Alternative strategies to prevent and con¬trol endoparasite diseases in organic sheep and goat farming systems. Ressortforschung für den Ökologischen Landbau, 298, 49–90.

Rebbeck, C., Hammond, R., Wong, J., Nair, L., & Raghavan, N. (2006). Solid-phase extraction and HPLC analysis of methylparaben and propylparaben in a concentrated antibiotic suspension. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 32, 1095–1102. >>

Samsonovich, V. А. (2012a). Ehkologicheskie osobennosti ehpizootologii strongiloidoza porosyat [Ecological features of epizootology strongyloi¬dosis pigs]. Scientific Notes of the Bauman Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, 211, 135–138 (in Russian).

Samsonovich, V. А. (2012b). Vliyanie strongiloidov na morfologicheskij sostav krovi i pokazateli estestvennoj rezistentnosti u porosyat [Influence of Strongyloides on the morphological composition of the blood and indicators of natural resistance in pigs]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Series of Agrarian Sciences, 3, 74–79 (in Russian).

Sato, K., Krist, S., & Buchbauer, G. (2006). Antimicrobial effect of trans-Cinnamaldehyde, (–)-Perillaldehyde, (–)-Citronellal, Citral, Eugenol and Carvacrol on airborne microbes using an airwasher. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 29(11), 2292–2294. >>

Shapiro, S., Giertsen, E., Guggenheim, B. (2002). An in vitro oral biofilm model for comparing the efficacy of antimicrobial mouthrinses. Caries Research, 36, 93–100.

Shen, F., Xing, M., Liu, L., Tang, X., Wang, W., Wang, X., Wu, X., Wang, X., Wang, X., Wang, G., Zhang, J., Li, L., Zhang, J., & Yu, L. (2012). Efficacy of trans-cinnamaldehyde against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro. Parasitology Research, 110, 1321–1326. >>

Si, W., Ni, X., Gong, J., Yu, H., Tsao, R., Han, Y., & Chambers, J. R. (2009). Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and structurally related synthetic food additives towards Clostridium perfringens. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 106(1), 213–220. >>

Smirnov, E. V. (2008). Pishhevye aromatizatory [Food flavors]. Profession, Saint Petersburg (in Russian).

Somolinos, M., Garcia, D., Pagan, R., & Mackey, B. (2008). Relationship between sublethal injury and microbial inactivation by the combination of high hydrostatic pressure and citral or tert-butyl hydroquinone. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74(24), 7570–7577. >>

Sun, J. (2007). D-Limonene: Safety and clinical applications. Alternative Medicine Review, 12(3), 259–264.

Ullah, I., Latif, A. K., Ali, L., Khan, A. R., Waqas, M., Hussain, J., Lee, I.-J., & Shin, J.-H. (2015). Benzaldehyde as an insecticidal, antimicrobial, and antioxidant compound produced by Photorhabdus temperata. Journal of Microbiology, 53(2), 127–133. >>

Van Wyk, J. A., & Mayhew, E. (2013). Morphological identification of parasitic nematode infective larvae of small ruminants and cattle: A practical lab guide. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 80(1), 1–14. >>

Veneziano, V., Rubino, R., Fedele, V., Rinaldi, L., Santaniello, M., Schioppi, M., Cascone, C., Pizzillo, M., & Cringoli, G. (2004). The effects of five anthelmintic treatment regimes on milk production in goats naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes. South African Journal of Animal Science, 34, 238–240.

Yаmov, V. Z., & Аntropov, V. А. (2008). Ehpizootologiya gel’mintozov svinej na tyumenskom yuge [Epizootology of pigs helminthosis in the south of Tyumen]. Agricultural Messenger of Ural Veterinary Science, 47, 70–71 (in Russian).

Zajac, A. M., & Conboy, G. A. (eds.) (2011). Veterinary clinical parasitology, 8th ed. John Wiley and Sons, UK.

How to Cite
Boyko, A. A., & Brygadyrenko, V. V. (2017). Changes in the viability of Strongyloides ransomi larvae (Nematoda, Rhabditida) under the influence of synthetic flavourings. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(1), 36-40.