Monitoring of nitrate content of vegetable crops in Uzhgorod district
AbstractThe aim of our research was to conduct a monitoring study of nitrate content in plant products of Uzhgorod district and to accomplish comparative analysis of the survey results in different periods of crop ripening. Selection of vegetable samples was carried out in Uzhgorod district in the early spring and summer periods. Determination of the nitrate content was performed using an ion-selective method at the Chemical and Toxicological Department of the Regional State Veterinary Medicine Laboratory in the Transcarpathian region of Ukraine. Vegetables were tested for nitrate content using the ion-selective method with the laboratory ion meter AI-123. Core investigation samples were crushed and homogenized. A 10.0 g weight of the investigated product, which was prepared according to MIR № 5048-89, was placed in a flat-bottomed or a conical flask, which was then filled with 50 cm3 potassium alumens solution and shaken in a shaking-machine for 5 minutes and then transferred into a measuring glass. The nitrate weight fraction in milligrams per kilogram was obtained together with the weight concentration value of nitrate ions in solution. For our study we selected vegetables grown in both public and private gardens of Uzhgorod district, namely: common onions, radishes, garden parsley, cucumbers, tomatoes, bell peppers, white cabbages, carrots and table beets. 25 samples were selected for each type of vegetable. Nitrate content was determined in the early spring growing period (from February 9 to May 27, 2011) and in the summer growing period (from June 3 to September 28, 2011), because in these particular periods we recorded the most frequent cases of food poisoning from nitrates among the population of the region. A clear trend has been traced towards increasing the nitrate content in food plant production, at levels which exceed the maximum permissible concentration (MPC). The results of our research demonstrate that the nitrate content exceeded the maximum permissible concentration in 9 kinds of vegetables out of the 11 selected for the investigation, which composes 82% of total production. In particular, among the selected vegetables an excess of nitrate content, above MPC was recorded in 100% of cucumbers, 92% of carrots, 40% samples of green onions, 40% of radishes, 40% of tomatoes, 28% bell peppers, and 16% of early white cabbages. However, the most significant nitrate excess, which was more than double the MPC, was observed in 56% of cucumbers, 20% of tomatoes, 8% of radishes in the early spring period and 4% of tomatoes in the summer period. Consequently, it has been established that the consumption of early vegetable production contributes to the ingestion by humans of significant amounts of nitrates. The application of an agrochemical system based upon sound measurement of the nitrate content would allow us to solve the task of increasing soil fertility and to form a deficit-free and positive balance of biogenic elements and humus in the "soil – plant – fertilizer" system and develop a system of crop production which is balanced in its chemical composition and nutritional value. To sum up, detailed determination of the factors that lead to the accumulation of nitrates in vegetable crops and the development of methods to reduce nitrate concentrations in crop production require further investigation.
Brito, J.M.C., Ferreira, D., Guerrero, C.A.C., Machado, A.V.,
Beltrão, J., 1999. Soil pollution by nitrates using sewage sludge and mineral fertilizers. Dev. Plant Soil Sci. 6(86), 223–227.
Brown, J.R., 1996. Soil fertilization and nitrate accumulation in vegetables. Agron. J. 58, 209–212.
Cantliffe, D.J., 1973. Nitrate accumulation in table beets and spinach as affected by nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium nutrition and light intensity. Agron. J. 65, 563–565. >>doi: 10.2134/agronj1973.00021962006500040012x
Cardenas, L.M., Cuttle, S.P., Crabtree, B., Hopkins, A., Shepherd, A., Scholefield, D., del Prado, A., 2011. Cost effectiveness of nitrate leaching mitigation measures for grassland livestock systems at locations in England and Wales. Sci. Total Environ. 409, 1104–1115. >>doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.12.006
Chambers, B.J., Lord, E.I., Nicholson, F.A., Smith, K.A., 1999. Predicting nitrogen availability and losses following application of organic manure to arable land. Soil Use Manage. 15, 137–143.
Ciganenko, O.І., 2004. Nitrates in food products [Nіtrati v harchovih produktah]. Zdorov’ya, Kyiv (in Ukrainian).
Degodyuk, E.G., 2007. Viroschuvannya ekologіchno chistoji produkcіji roslinnictva [Ecologically clean crop production growing]. Urozhaj, Kyiv (in Ukrainian).
Du, L., Zhao, T., Zhang, C., An, Z., Wu, Q., Liu, B., Li, P., Ma, M., 2011. Investigations on nitrate pollution of soil, groundwater and vegetable from three typical farmlands in Beijing region, China. Agric. Sci. China 10(3), 423–430. >>doi: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60021-7
Erisman, J.W., Galloway, J.N., Seitzinger, S., Bleeker, A., Dise, N.B., Petrescu, A.M., Leach, A.M, de Vries, W., 2013. Consequences of human modification of the global nitrogen cycle. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci. 368, 1621. >>doi: 10.1098/rstb.2013.0116
Firdevs, M., Sahindokuyucu, F., Erdogan, N., 2010. Nitrate and nitrite contents of some vegetables consumed in south province of Turkey. Agric. J. 5(3), 142–145.
Gabovich, R.D., Priputina, L.S., 1987. Gigienicheskie osnovy ohrany produktov pitaniya ot vrednyh himicheskih veschestv [Food protection hygienic basics from harmful chemicals]. Zdorov’e, Kyiv (in Russian).
Gholami, A., Forouzmand, P., Afrous, A., Panahpour, E., 2012. Studying the condition of nitrate pollution in lettuce product. Int. J. Agri. Crop. Sci. 4 (17), 1276–1280.
Grіshina, І.O., Panasenko, T.V., 2009. Viznachennya vmіstu nіtratіv v ovochah [Nitrate determination in vegetables]. Pitannya Bіoіndikacії ta Ekologії 14(2), 236–241 (in Ukrainian).
Guadagnin, S.G., Rath, S., Reyes, F.G., 2005. Evaluation of the nitrate content in leaf vegetables produced through different agricultural systems. Food Addit. Contam. 22(12), 1203–1208. >>doi: 10.1080/02652030500239649
Kennedy, D., 2003. Leafy vegetables and nitrates in nitrate and nitrite in food and water. Harwood Publishers, London.
Kumar, V., Chandra, A., Singh, G., 2010. Efficacy of flyash based bio-fertilizers vs perfected chemical fertilizers in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Int. J. Eng. Sci. Technol. 2(7), 31–35.
Luzhkov, A.D., 1990. Skorost’ vosstanovleniya nitratov do nitritov v syroj masse nekotoryh rastenij [Nitrate recovery rate to nitrite in the fresh weight of some plants]. Gigiena i Sanitariya 1, 29–30 (in Russian).
Maynard, D.N., Baker, A.V., Minotti, P.L., Peck, N.H., 1976. Nitrate accumulation in vegetables. Adv. Agron. 28, 71–118. >>doi: 0.1016/S0065-2113(08)60553-2
Mihals’ka, O.M., Gavrilenko, O.S., 2011. Vpliv sistem udobrennya na vmіst nіtratіv v ovochevih kul’turah [Fertilization systems effect on nitrate content in vegetable crops]. Naukovі Dopovіdі NUBіP 7(29), 11–17.
Mudrij, І.V., Lep’oshkіn, І.V., 2005. Deyakі aspekty problemy viroschuvannya yakіsnoji roslinnoji produkcіji pri zastosuvannі mіneral’nih dobriv ta metodichnі pіdhodi schodo toksikologo gіgіjenіchnoji jih ocіnky [Some aspects of high quality plant production growing problem with the mineral fertilizers application and methodological approaches to their toxicological-hygienic evaluation]. Problemy Harchuvannya 4, 44–47 (in Ukrainian).
Nikolaichuk, V.I., 2008. Ecological problems in the Carpathian mountains and possible ways to overcome them. Acta Agron. Hung. 56(2), 235–246. >>doi: 10.1556/AAgr.56.2008.2.12
Pіkul’, K.V., 2003. Anomalіji rozvitku u dіtej z nіtratnozabrudnenoji teritorіji [Childrens abnormal development in nitrate-polluted area]. Dovkіllya ta Zdorov’ya 2, 18–20 (in Ukrainian).
Prugar, Y., Prugarova, A., 1990. Izbytochnyj azot v ovoschah [Nitrates excess in vegetables]. Moscow (in Russian).
Rahmani, H.R., 2006. Investigation of nitrate pollution in the soil, water and plants in some agricultural fields in Baraan (Esfehan Prevalence). Env. Sci. 11, 23–34 (in Persian).
Romanchik, L.D., Annamuhammedova, O.O., Annamuhammedova, A.O., 2009. Osoblivostі nakopichennya nіtratіv ovochevimi kul’turami v osobistih pіdsobnih gospodarstvah gromadyan v pіvnіchnih rajonah Zhitomirschini [Nitrate accumulation features in vegetable crops of citizens private farms in the northern parts of Zhytomyr]. Vіsnik Nacіonal’nogo Unіversitetu Vodnogo Gospodarstva ta Prirodokoristuvannya 4(48), 87–94 (in Ukrainian).
Rumyanceva, G.I., 2001. Hygiene [Gigiena]. Geotar Medicina, Moscow (in Russian).
Silgram, M., Shepherd, M., 1999. The effects of cultivation on soil nitrogen mineralization. Adv. Agron. 65, 267–311. >>doi: 10.1016/S0065-2113(08)60915-3
Susin, J., Kmecl, V., Gregoric, A., 2006. A survey of nitrite content of fruit and vegetables grown in Slovenia during 1996–2002. Food Add. & Contemn. 23(4), 385–390.
Sylvester-Bradley, R., Chambers, B.J., 1992. The implications of restricting use of fertiliser nitrogen for the productivity of arable crops, their profitability and potential pollution by nitrate. Aspect Appl. Biol. 30, 85–94.
VanLoon, G.W., Duffy, S.J., 2005. Environmental chemistry – A global perspective. Oxford University Press.
Ziarati, P., Bidgoli, S.A., 2012. Evaluation of the nitrate content in leafy vegetables of southern parts of Tehran: A four seasonal study. Scientific reports. OMICS Publishing Group.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons «Attribution» 4.0 License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.